The health of parents and children are closely intertwined, yet the health-care system generally does not take an integrated approach to family health treatment. For instance, pediatricians who treat children with asthmatic symptoms often do not ask about parents' smoking and rarely intervene to help change the parents' smoking behavior. It's probably not considered within the scope of their practice and they aren't able to bill the treatment to the child's insurance. This situation is problematic since a primary cause of the symptoms is likely the secondhand smoke in the child's environment. Pediatricians don't necessarily need to abandon their specialization and start treating parents and children in the same practice, but the solution likely lies in reforming the health care system to be more holistic and interconnected.
Sherry Glied and Don Oellerich write in the Two-Generation issue of Future of Children that few programs aim to treat parents and children together due to structural barriers in the U.S. health-care system. They argue that the Affordable Care Act, which expands coverage to millions of lower-income parents, is a necessary step to help establish a policy environment to allow for two-generation approaches to health.
Importantly, it's up to the states to take two further steps. First, they need to ensure that parents and children can be treated in the same programs despite Medicaid eligibility. Second, they should give providers incentives to generate meaningful changes in their practices, such as embracing the patient-centered medical home model which makes additional payments to providers who coordinate their services with other medical and social service providers.
Glied and Oellerich conclude that the rationale for two-generation programs that target both children's and parents' health problems is strong, and there are new opportunities ahead to develop and implement these programs.