American Visual Poetry


291, no.2 April 1915. [Untitled] by Katherine N. Rhoades. "Mental Reations" by Marius De Zayas and Agnes Ernst Meyer. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize 2007-0018E

In 1954, Princeton received a gift from the painter Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986). This donation included issues of 291, a monthly magazine published out of The Little Galleries of the Photo Succession, run by her husband Alfred Stieglitz. Today, the graphic arts division holds issues no. 2-7/8 (although no.1, 9-12 are currently missing, things have a way of turning up).

291 was edited by Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946), Marius de Zayas (1880-1961), Paul Haviland (1880-1950), Agnes Ernst Meyer (1887-1970), and to a lesser extent Francis Picabia (1879-1953), and Katherine N. Rhoades (1885-1986). Many of the prints include hand-coloring and issue no. 7/8 has a photogravure by Stieglitz.

291 no.3 May 1915. Page design by Marius De Zayas, poems by Katherine N. Rhoades and Agnes Ernst Meyer.
291 no.3 May 1915. Le Coq Gaulois drawn by Edward Steichen. "A Bunch of Keys" by J.B. Kerfoot.

The inspiration for 291 came in 1914, when De Zayas was in Paris searching for art to exhibit in the New York gallery. In one of his letters back to Stieglitz, he mentions the visual poetry of Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) "[who] is doing in poetry what Picasso is doing in painting. He uses actual forms made up with letters. All these show a tendency towards the fusion of the so-called arts." When De Zayas returned, he convinced Stieglitz of the need for a new magazine devoted to visual poetry and satire. Together with Haviland and Meyer they began 291.

291 no.4 June 1915. "Fille née sans mêre" drawn by Picabia, poem by Rhoades.

192 no.4 June 1915. "291" drawn by John Marin.

Only about 100 copies of the regular and deluxe (heavy paper) editions were sold to subscribers. The magazine never found an audience in New York and the publication only survived for one year before closing. Stieglitz sold the entire back stock to a ragpicker for $5.80.

291 no.5/6 July/August 1915. "Canter" and "Voila Haviland" drawn by Picabia.

291 no.5/6 July/August 1915. "Ici, c'est ici Stieglitz foi et amour" by Picabia.

291 no.7/8 September/October 1915. "The Steerage" by Stieglitz. Comments on "The Steerage" by Paul B. Haviland and De Zayas.



mark jaquette
@ illustrationism & bammgraphics

Dear Sir,

I have recently written a book of visual poetry entitled 'Eloqüencies', published by Tabelaria Edicions and with a prologue in Spanish, Catalan and English by Professor Miquel Toneu from the Vice-Chancellor's Office at Vic University. I would like to be included on your registers as the author of this work and would also be extremely interested in receiving feedback from you. If you wish to visualise some of the poems, they are available at

Should you be interested in setting up an exhibition, I have 42 photographs in 40x40 cm format. (There is also a video included in the blog at which can be translated into English if required).

In addition, if you wish to feature my work in your bookstore, I will be delighted to send you as many copies as you require on a deposit basis.

Although I am not sure whether it's possible, I would also be delighted if you could set up a VISUAL POETRY link on your website under the domain.

Thank you very much.


Toni prat


Does anyone know the dimensions of this journal? I am including it in an artefact survey and need to know the size and medium.

Recent Comments

  • christopher liaubon: Hello, Does anyone know the dimensions of this journal? I read more
  • toni prat: Dear Sir, I have recently written a book of visual read more
  • illustrationISM: WONDERFUL! My Favorite is A BUNCH OF KEYS! mark jaquette read more