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Certificate of Membership in the Pilgrim Society


Pilgrim Society certificate. Engraved by J. Andrews at the firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edison after a design by Hammatt Billings (1818-1874). Published J. Andrew, Massachusetts, 1856. Inscribed: “This certifies that John Warner, Esq. is a member of the Pilgrim Society, instituted at Plymouth, Mass., A.D. 1820 in grateful remembrance of the first settlers of New England who landed at that place December 21st 1620. Plymouth, June 1, 1864. Elliott Russell Secy. Richd Warren Prest.” Graphic Arts collection, GA2008. -in process

The Pilgrim Society was incorporated in 1820 “for the purpose of procuring, in the town of Plymouth, a suitable lot or plat of ground for the erection of a monument to perpetuate the memories … of their ancestors, who first settled in that ancient town” Four years later, the Society established Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth, which is today the oldest continuously-operated museum in the United States.

The monument the Society originally planned took much longer to fund and to build. The 81 foot tall granite structure was not dedicated until August 1889, but clearly the plans were drawn much earlier because it appears in the central vignette of this 1864 engraved membership certificate for the Pilgrim Society. The monument’s central figure is the female personification of Faith and surrounding her are the symbols of Morality, Education, Law, and Liberty.

The copy of the Society’s membership certificate owned by Princeton is for John Warren, presumably a descendent of Richard Warren (ca. 1580-1628), one of the passengers aboard the Mayflower and a signer of the Mayflower compact. A partial genealogy of the Warren family can be found at

Laid or Wove

Although most paper is now made by machine, for hundreds of years it was made by hand, one sheet at a time. Western papermakers would tear up old clothes and rags, and soak them in water until they dissolved into a thick soup of fibers. A small amount of the liquid was scooped into a wire screen mould where the fibers were allowed to settle down onto the screen and the excess water was drained off. Each sheet was then dried between blankets of felt.

The screen was originally made with brass wires strung across the length of the mould (laid lines), secured at several crossing wires (chain lines). These wires left an impression in the paper that can be seen when holding the sheet up to the light. We call this laid paper.

In the 1750s, James Whatman (1702-1759), owner of the largest papermill in England, developed a paper mould with brass wires that were woven together. The new design produced paper with a smoother surface, particularly good for drawings and watercolors. The first book published with wove paper was John Baskerville’s 1757 Virgil.

Laid paper mould [left]; wove mould [right]

Laid paper [left]; wove paper [right]

These paper moulds are from the collection of graphic arts. The papers are samples found in:
Dard Hunter (1883-1966). Old papermaking (Chillicothe, Ohio: Mountain House Press, 1923), which includes 6 samples of paper manufactured from the 15th to the 20th century. Graphic Arts GAX, Oversize TS1090 .H8q

To see the original 1757 Virgil on wove paper, see Publii Virgilii Maronis Bucolica, Georgica et Aeneis (Birminghamiae: Typis Johannis Baskerville, 1757) Rare Books: Junius Morgan Collection (VRG) Oversize 2945.1757.2q

Picasso Block


Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850), Le chef-d’oeuvre inconnu (The Unknown Masterpiece) (Paris: Vollard, 1931). 13 etchings and 67 woodcuts by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). Copy no. 154 of 340, with an additional suite of 13 etchings. Book is a gift of Monroe Wheeler. Graphic Arts collection GAX oversize PQ2163.C4 1931q. Block is a gift of Elizabeth Roth in honor of Karl Kup.

Le chef-d’oeuvre inconnu is a short story by Honoré de Balzac, which was originally called “Maître Frenhofer” or “Master Frenhofer” when it was published in 1831. The character of Frenhofer is a painter who has been working on the same painting for ten years. Over that time, he develops a complex relationship with his model who is also his mistress. The story ends sadly, with the artist burning his canvas before he dies.

In 1927, the French art dealer and publisher Ambroise Vollard commissioned Picasso to illustrate a deluxe edition of Balzac’s text, intended for fine art print collectors. Picasso connected with the story on a very deep level, to the point that he moved his studio to the street where the hero of the story had lived. On the centenary of the story, the Picasso/Balzac edition was released.

Along with this masterpiece in 20th-century book design, the collection of graphic arts holds a woodblock designed by Picasso for Le chef-d’oeuvre inconnu that was never included in the published edition.

First Stereotyped Book

Sallust (86-34 B.C.E), C. Crispi Sallustii Belli Catilinarii et Jugurthini historiæ (Edinburgi: Guilielmus Ged, 1744). Graphic Arts GAX 2007-0001S

In the early eighteenth century, a Scottish goldsmith named William Ged (1690-1749) experimented with a new printing technique in which a whole page of type is cast as a single metal plate. Not having his own shop, Ged borrowed a page of set type so that he could make a mold of it and then, cast the mold in lead. His invention become known as stereotyping and allowed a printer to return individual pieces of type to the composing room for reuse, while the metal plates could be stored and printed on demand. Corrections could easily be made by cutting out the imperfect part and soldering the necessary new type into place.

Around the same time, William Caslon was establishing the first successful type foundry in London. Caslon was afraid Ged’s invention would diminish his type business, so he made a public bet with Ged that he could set and print pages faster than Ged could reproduce them. Ged won the bet, but Caslon did not give up and secretly sabotaged Ged’s business (accounts differ on this), sending him into bankruptcy. In the end, Ged only stereotyped the pages for one complete book. Ironically, the text concerns an ancient Roman conspiracy written by Sallust.

Printed Paintings and Engraved Drawings

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Le Couronnement
(The Crowning)

Antoine Gautier de Montdorge (1701-1768), L’art d’imprimer les tableaux (Paris: Le Mercier, 1756). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2004-3391N. Gift of Elmer Adler.

In 1725, the German artist Jakob Christoffel Le Blon (1667-1741) published Scheme of Colours in Coloritto, outlining his discovery of a multi-color intaglio printing technique, which he used to print reproductions of chalk and pastel drawings. For the first time, full-color prints could be created from just three colors: blue, yellow, red (and later black) printed in that order, one on top of the other. Many eighteenth-century French printmakers learned and practiced this technique, which became known as chalk manner engraving. Variations were developed to also reproduce gouache and watercolor paintings.

Philibert-Louis Debucourt (1755-1832) was particularly able at wash manner printing and a good example of his work is “Le Couronnement” or “The Crowning” [at the left] from Héro et Léandre, translated by Le Chevalier de Quérelles (Paris: Pierre Didot l’ainé, 1801). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize PQ2384.Q45 H4 1801q. This particular print required six different plates with six different inks: blue, green, yellow, red, brown, and black, in that order.

In the nineteenth century, these time-consuming and expensive printing techniques were replaced with stencil and hand coloring, which was usually done by low-paid female workers.

Princeton owns a later publication by Antoine Gautier de Montdorge with Le Blon’s text in English and French, along with a complete explanation of the technique. For additional information on chalk manner printing, see the exhibition catalogue: Margaret Morgan Grasselli, Colorful Impressions: the Printmaking Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France ([Washington, D.C.]: National Gallery of Art, 2003). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) Oversize 2005-0445Q

For more on color, see the new rare books acquisition announced at

Polychromatic Decoration

W. & G. Audsley, Polychromatic Decoration as Applied to Buildings in the Mediaeval Styles (London: H. Sotheran & Co., 1882). GA Oversize NK2180.A8F

The Audsley brothers, William James (born 1833) and George Ashdown (1838-1925), were Scottish architects who practiced in Liverpool from 1856 to 1880, in London during the 1880s, and in New York City beginning in 1892.

Throughout their career, the brothers wrote, lectured, and published their designs and their beliefs, including the beautiful color-plate book Polychromatic Decoration. Intended as a pattern book and practical guide to the painted decoration of medieval-style buildings, the volume was an instant success. The brillient chromolithographs were printed by Firmin-Didot, who also published a French edition. Although the two editions were meant to be released simultaneously, La peinture murale décorative, dans le style du moyen age (Marquand Library (SA) Oversize NK2140 .A7f) actually came out weeks earlier, at the end of 1881 and so, has an earlier date. Each contains 36 chromolithographed plates, offering 166 designs.

In 1895, George Audsley presented a talk at the Architectural League of New York on “The Polychromatic Decoration of Churches,” which was reprinted in Architecture and Building. This may have led directly to the commission to design the painted ornamentation for Our Lady of Grace Roman Catholic Church of Hoboken, New Jersey. For Princetonians who want to see the Audsleys’ work in situ, this remains the closest example.

To see more digital images, go to:

Rowlandson Revives Gillray's English Beauties

James Gillray (1757-1815). A Sale of English Beauties in the East Indies. Published by William Holland, 16 May 1786. Etching and aquatint with added watercolor. 43 x 55 cm. GA Rowlandson

The English artist James Gillray was a leading force in the Golden Age of British caricature, completing at least 1,000 prints between 1779 and 1811. As a young student in London’s Royal Academy, at the same time as William Blake, Gillray supported himself by engraving for hire and published a number of prints under fictitious names.

The caricature shown here comes from early in his professional career. The scene reverses the roles of slave and slave owner, with English women being marketed to East Indian men. The ship has barely unloaded its cargo, when the auction begins. There is a warehouse on the right “for unsaleable goods from Europe, to be returned by the next ship,” where unwanted women are already exiting. The auctioneer stands at a podium made of bales of “britches” of British Manufacture, much the same as the women. At his feet are boxes of books of sexual content marked “for the amusement of Military gentlemen.” Barrels of “Leakes Pills” line the bottom of the print, a contemporary remedy for venereal disease.

Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) after James Gillray (1757-1815). A Sale of English Beauties in the East Indies. Published by Thomas Tegg, [1810]. Etching with hand coloring. 24 x 34 cm. GA Rowlandson

Thomas Wright, editor. The Works of James Gillray, the Caricaturist. London: Chatto and Windus, 1873. GA Rowlandson 989.2

A Sale of English Beauties was a very popular image but in the early nineteenth century Gillray was hospitalized and stopped printing. Publisher Thomas Tegg commissioned another caricaturist, Thomas Rowlandson, to copy the plate for a new edition. Smaller in size and less complex in design, Rowlandson went out of his way to make the satirical text in the image readable and finished the print in bright, bold colors that grabbed the attention of pedestrians passing Tegg’s printshop. Finally, the new publisher and date were inscribed at the bottom right, without any credit to Gillray.

Pro-Slavery Demonstrators Destroy Pennsylvania Hall

Pennsylvania Hall Association, History of Pennsylvania Hall, which was destroyed by a mob, on the 17th of May, 1838 (Philadelphia: Printed by Merrihew and Gunn, 1838). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Hamilton 1295

“It is with reluctance we come before the public with the story of our wrongs,” begins the final chapter of History of Pennsylvania Hall. “Were we to consult our own feelings, we should draw a veil over the disgraceful transactions we are about to disclose.”

Pennsylvania Hall opened its doors on Monday, May 14, 1838. The building was constructed to provide a safe place for organizations to meet and discuss the abolition of slavery. By Thursday evening, the building was demolished.

The first group to meet in the Hall was the Female Anti-Slavery Society and the next morning, a group of pro-slavery demonstrators began posting placards around Philadelphia, urging citizens to interfere, forcibly if they must, with further meetings. When the Society met again on Wednesday, demonstrators yelled and threw bricks through the windows.

On Thursday, the Society sent a letter to the mayor of Philadelphia, asking for his protection. A series of letters went back and forth all day and around sunset the mayor addressed 15,000 demonstrators who had gathered outside the Hall. He told them he would not stop them, in fact he said, “I look upon you as my police, and I trust you will abide by the laws, and keep order.” With that, the mob attacked the building and set it on fire.

The History is illustrated with three views of the Hall: a color lithograph frontispiece before the fire (top); a mezzotint by John Sartain depicting the fire (bottom); and a wood engraving of the ruins, drawn by John Archibald Woodside, Jr. and engraved by Reuben S. Gilbert (not shown here).

Portraits of Artists

Harry Sternberg (1904-2001), Picasso, 1944. Serigraph. Sheet size: 55.7 x 36.4 cm. GA2008- in process
Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Balzac. Published by Musée Rodin 1981. Bronze bust. GA 2006.01576

The artist Harry Sternberg (1904-2001) was an influential instructor at the Art Students League in New York from 1933 to 1966 and helped a generation of artists find their voice in color and line. While his own work is best-known for its social realism, Sternberg also produced a series of bright and sometimes humorous portraits of his favorite artists, such as the serigraph of Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) shown here.

The graphic arts collection includes over 800 portraits of visual artists from around the world, as well as portraits of over 800 authors, 100 actors, and 300 politicians. These include prints, drawings, photographs, paintings, and sculptures. To find the face of your favorite artist, go to the Visuals database:

Weber & Fields as Mike and Meyer: a photo comedy complete. Published by Marcus Loew, no date. Lithographic poster. GA 2006.00018

A Modern Ubu Roi

Alfred Jarry (1873-1907), Ubu roi: drame en cinq actes. Eight etchings colored à la poupée by Matta (1912-2002). Paris: Atelier Dupont-Visat, 1982. Copy no. 27 of 150. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize PQ2619.A65 U3 1982f

The French writer Alfred Jarry is chiefly remembered as the creator of Ubu roi (King Ubu). The play is a loose parody of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, presenting the characters of mother and father Ubu, who plot to assassinate the King of Poland. The first commercial production opened on December 11, 1896 at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre. But when the first line was spoken, “Merdre” (Shitter) the audience caused such uproar that it took the stage manager nearly fifteen minutes to quiet the auditorium. Those who did not walk out continued to jeer and interrupt the performance throughout the evening. For the complete French text, see:

There will be a reading from Ubu roi by Florent Masse of L’Atelier, the French Theater Workshop, and students from Princeton University’s French department on March 7, 6:00 p.m., at the Princeton University Art Museum in conjunction with the exhibition “Invoking the Comic Muse.”

Jarry created his own illustrations for the published play, in particular the figure of father Ubu, with a distinctive spiral across his stomach. Since then, other artist have published their interpretations of Jarry’s notorious play, including in 1982, the Chilean artist Matta (Roberto Matta Echaurren). Born in Santiago, the young Matta spent time in Paris as an assistant to the architect Le Corbusier. In the 1930s, he became an active member of the French surrealists, who all looked to Jarry for inspiration and courage. As a sign of Matta’s appreciation to Jarry, the distinctive spiral appears in many of his paintings.

The First Comic Strip Published in America

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Rodolphe Topffer (1799-1846), The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck (New York: Wilson and Company, 1842). GAX Oversize Cruik 1842.7
Rodolphe Topffer, The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck (London: Tilt and Bogue, [1841]). Title page by Robert Cruikshank. GA Cruik 1841.5

The Swiss artist Rodolphe Töpffer (1799-1846) was a pioneer of the sequential image format that we think of today as the cartoon or comic strip. His first cartoon sequence Histoire de Mr. Vieux Bois was drawn in 1827 and very quickly followed with others, to the delight of his friends. Goethe had a particular fondness for Töpffer’s drawings and there is an article on his work in the last issue of Ueber Kunst und Alterthum (no. 6, 1832), the journal Goethe edited, entitled “On the Pen-Drawings of Rodolphe Töpfer [sic].” Rare Books (Ex) 3445.392

Töpffer’s first published book Histoire de Mr. Jabot appeared in 1833 followed by Histoire de Mr. Crépin and Les Amours de Mr. Vieux Bois (or Histoire de Mr. Vieux Bois) in 1837.

Bootlegs and redrawn fakes were numerous because of the popularity of his work, in particular by the Paris publisher Aubert. The first English language edition came in 1841, entitled The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck produced at Woone’s Gypsography, copied from Aubert’s unauthorized French edition. Robert Cruikshank did the English language title page. In 1842, this edition was reprinted in the United States as a supplement to the magazine Brother Jonathan.

A detailed chronology of Töpffer’s life can be found at:

Several completely digital versions of the books are at:

Raphael's Bible

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Francesco Villamena (ca. 1566-1624), La Sacra Genesi figurate da Rafaele d’Urbino nelle Logge Vaticane, intagliata da Francesco Villamena ([Rome]: s.n., between 1593 and 1621). GAX NE662.V56 R36f

A painter, architect, and supervisor of Roman archaeology research, Raphael (1483-1520), was a leading figure of the Italian High Renaissance. In 1510, he was called to Rome by Pope Julius II to create frescos for a room in the Vatican. He returned at the invitation of Leo X to decorate the walls and ceilings of the Loggie, the Papal palace. Raphael’s elaborate plans included designs for 13 ceiling vaults, 52 ceiling frescoes predominately portraying Old Testament scenes, and 28 pilaster frescoes for the walls. Much of the actual work of was ultimately accomplished by his assistants. This project has come to be known as Raphael’s Bible.

In the early years of the seventeenth century, the engraver Francesco Villamena reproduced Raphael’s biblical designs in 20 copper plate engravings (plus an engraved title page), published in at least three editions. The original prints of Princeton’s copy have been trimmed and glued to a new series of pages. The prints begin with “Confusam corporum molem Deus ex nihilo” (God creating heaven, Genesis i) and end with “Christus Dominus die tertia a mortuis resurgit” (The Resurrection, Matthew, xxviii). Also pictured here is “Diluuio totus terrarum orbis inundator” (The Deluge, Genesis vii).

Eggs, Nests, and Beaks


Illustrations of the Nests and Eggs of Birds of Ohio. Texts by Howard Jones and illustrations by Virginia Jones. (Circleville, Ohio, 1886). GAX 2008- in process.

“Nest and Eggs” is a beautiful color-plate book that began in 1877 as the project of Genevieve Jones and Eliza Shulze, two young women in Circleville, Ohio. Jones’ father offered to finance the publication and to collect the birds’ nests for the girls to illustrate. None of them had any previous experience but it was their hope to produce a scientific work in twenty parts, illustrated with hand-colored lithographs, which would sell for $5.00/part.

According to the research of Ernest Wessen, published in The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 47, no. 3 (1953), some of the production and most of the credit for the publication was taken over by Genevieve’s younger brother, Howard. Even their mother, Virginia, who help out after 1879, received more credit than her daughter.

Regardless, the production of the book was exceptional. Adolph Krebs, a professional lithographer, shuttled 65 pound stones back and forth between Circleville and his studio in Cincinnati. Josephine Klippart, a professional colorist, was paid $3/print. Robert Clarke, a Cincinnati publisher, printed the text and wrappers.

The first part was released in July of 1879 and the final part in December of 1886. In the end, the biggest loser might have been Dr. Jones, who put up $13,181 for the edition of 90 copies (23 parts, 60 plates). Records indicate sales over ten years returning just $2,000. The Smithsonian has digitized all the plates at

Alexander Wilson (1766-1813), American ornithology; or, The natural history of the birds of the United States (Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1808-25). Rare Books (Ex) Oversize 8880.975q

At the other end of the spectrum, is Alexander Wilson’s color-plate book American Ornithology, published from 1808 to 1825. Under the instructions of his neighbor, the naturalist William Bartram, Wilson began painting birds of the area. Engraver Alexander Lawson was employed to translate the designs to engravings. Either dissatisfaction or lack of funds led Wilson to fire the colorists and he did most of the hand-coloring himself.

In a recent exhibition at the Library Company of Philadelphia, curators presented the discovery that Wilson also used some color printing to supplement the hand work. If this is the case, Wilson’s Ornithology is the first American book with plates printed in more than one color.

To see more on Wilson and his coloring, go to

Russian Graphic Arts During the Revolution 1917-1922

Aleksei Alekseevich Sidorov (1891-1978), Russkaia grafika za gody revoliutsii, 1917-1922 (Moskva: “Dom pechati”, 1923). in process GAX 2008-

Pre-revolutionary panoramas

William Burgis, The South Prospect of the City of New York, in North America. Engraving, depicting 1717-1745; issued August 1761 by London Magazine. GA2008.00187

George Heap. The East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia, in the Province of Pennsylvania. Engraving, issued October 1761 by London Magazine. GA2008.00188

Four large colonial prospects, or prospectus views, were engraved at various times during the pre-revolutionary era in the United States. The view of New York was first, then Boston, Charleston, and finally Philadelphia. Each includes a bustling river view with the major architectural landmarks depicted in considerable detail. Although they look similar, they have different artists, printers, and publishers, and do not constitute a set.

South Prospect of New York was designed by William Burgis, engraved in London by John Harris, and issued in 1717. The final print measured over six feet in length, printed from four separate copper plates. The harbor is seen from Brooklyn Heights and might better be called a southeast prospect. The occassion depicted is thought to be a celebration of King George’s birthday.

Burgis’s print was reissued in 1746 by London printseller Thomas Bakewell, with an updating of the skyline. In 1761, the Bakewell reissue was once again revised and re-engraved in a reduced format for the Auguat 1761 issue of London Magazine. This is the print we hold at Princeton, seen above.

In October of that same year, London Magazine printed a prospect of Philadelphia. The original was designed by George Heap in 1754 in the style of William Burgis, but Heap fell ill and died before it was completed. The surveyor for the project, Nicholas Scull, had the engraving finished in London by Gerard Vandergucht. This view measured over seven feet, out-doing Burgis by a foot. A smaller version was completed by Vandergucht in 1755, which included a small section of the Jersey shore in the foreground.

A number of variations of the Scull and Heap view exist, usually based on the second second state. Princeton’s copy, published by London Magazine, was a gift of Alfred E. Kay, class of 1912.

Flowers for the Faculty

Count Franz Pocci (1807-1876), Viola tricolor: in picture and rhyme (New York: Stroefer & Kirchner, [1876]). Chromolithographs. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize 2006-0315Q

Franz Pocci, a high official in the Court of King Ludwig I, was also a musician, artist, and writer. He collaborated with “Papa Schimid”, founder of the Munich marionette theater, designing and painting the sets, curtains, and props, as well as writing a number of the stories. Pocci went on to publish many illustrated children’s books, which can be found in the Cotsen Library and the Graphic Arts division here at Princeton. In Viola tricolor, printed in astonishing chromolithography, Pocci replaces all the faces with flowers. He is responsible for both the art and the verse.

Faculty Professors
Here stand the University chaps,
In their grand official gowns and caps;
And thinks full sure, each learned elf:
“The cleverest here? - ‘tis I myself!”

The Painter at His Easel
Thus many a painter once gay and glad,
Sits before his picture, and says full sad:
“Oh had I but turn’d this work in to cash!”
“But nobody buys since the last great smash!”

La Orquesta

GAX Oversize 2007-0582Q

La Orquesta: Periódico Omniscio, de Buen Humor y con Cariaturas, often referred to as the Mexican Punch, was a satirical journal published out of Mexico City between 1861 and 1877. Graphic Arts holds 106 consecutive issues, each consisting of four pages of text and a full-page lithographic caricature.

Most of these caricatures were drawn by painter and social satirist Constantino Escalante (1836-1868), who was also one of the journal’s editors. Orquesta’s constant criticism of the Mexican government led to Escalante being arrested and jailed on more than one occasion.

For more information on Escalante, see Salvador Pruneda, La caricatura como arma política; caricaturas anónimas y de los artistas: J. G. Z., Constantino Escalante [et al.] (México, 1958). Firestone Library, NC1320 .P944

Native American Art


In the Western Americana division of Rare Books and Special Collections is a small collection of paintings and drawings by 20th-century Native American artists, including Alfonso Roybal, also known as Awa Tsireh or Cattail Bird (1898-1955), Abel Sanchez, also known as Oqwa Pi or Red Cloud (1899-1971), and Otis Polelonema, also called Lomadamocvia (1902-1972).

Roybal or Awa Tsireh was born and died in the San Ildefonso Pueblo, Santa Fe County, New Mexico. His father, Alfoncita Martinez Roybal was a Pueblo ceramicist and both his brother, Ralph Roybal, and sister, Santana Roybal Martinez, were painters. Tsireh’s work was first recognized outside the Pueblo in 1920 when Alice Corbin Henderson sent a collection of his work to the Arts Club of Chicago. Several of the drawings at Princeton are identified as once belonging to Henderson. Tsireh worked full-time as a painter, printmaker, lithographer, silversmith, and watercolorist in a studio of his own inside the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.

Sanchez or Red Cloud was a colleague of Roybal, also born at San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico. But unlike Roybal, Sanchez pursued a career in politics, serving as Lieutenant governor and governor of the Pueblo, while painting as he found time.

Polelonema was born at Second Mesa, the Northern Arizona Hopi reservation, and studied at the Santa Fe Indian School. At the age of 20, he collaborated with Elizabeth DeHuff, wife of the school’s superintendent, on a children’s book entitled Taytay’s Tales (see images at
Polelonema returned to his village, Shungopovi, where he farmed and painted, including a few years working under the mural division of the Federal Art Program.

To access these and other paintings, drawings, and prints, go to the Visuals database:

Longstreet: The Writer who also Painted or the Painter who also Wrote

Stephen Longstreet (1907-2002), Sportin’ House: New Orleans and the Jazz Story, A History of New Orleans Sinners and the Birth of Jazz. (Los Angeles: Sherbourne Press, [1965]). Extra illustrated with watercolors by the author dated 1978. GAX ML 3561.J3 L63.

Stephen Longstreet wrote more than 100 books, collaborated on a dozen screenplays, and created an uncounted number of painting, drawings and watercolors. Over half of his books are available on Firestone’s shelves; 68 of his colorful watercolors, primarily portraits, can be found in the Graphic Arts division
; and perhaps, most interesting of all, is this copy of Sportin’ House. Princeton’s copy is extra illustrated with watercolors drawn by the author directly onto the pages of the book, including the title page which he signed and dated.

Born in New York City and raised in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Longstreet moved to Paris in the 1920s to study painting. It was there he began creating watercolor portraits of such luminaries as Gertrude Stein and James Joyce. His evenings were spent at the Paris jazz clubs where he got to know the music and the musicians. Today, some of his best known books include Storyville to Harlem: Fifty Years in the Jazz Scene (1986) Oversize Rare Books: Western Americana collection ML87 .L66 1986q and Jazz From A to Z: A Graphic Dictionary (1989) Graphic Arts division Oversize ML102.J3 L66q.

His semi-autobiographical novel, The Sisters Liked Them Handsome, became a Broadway musical entitled High Button Shoes, starring Nanette Fabray and Phil Silvers. A complete list of his films can be found at:

Auguste Rodin's 1905 watercolor

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) is perhaps best remembered for his monumental bronze sculpture but during the last two decades of his life, he created many lyrical drawings and watercolors. They offered a spontaneity and freedom not seen in his earlier work, which led critics to dub them instantanés. Others called them immoral and several exhibitions were closed by the police. In 1905, Harry Kessler, director of the Weimar Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe was forced to resign after purchasing several for the museum’s permanent collection.

For Americans, their first chance to see these drawings was January 1908, when Edward Steichen arranged an exhibit at his New York gallery 291. It was a high point of that art season, second only to the over-hyped Macbeth galleries show of “The Eight”.

Rodin famously credited Michelangelo for freeing him from academism. Man Ray wrote in his autobiography “Rodin’s unanatomical watercolor sketches of nudes pleased me immensely and justified my abandon of academic principles.” [Self Portrait (Boston, 1963): 18].

The Graphic Arts division is fortunate to hold a small Rodin collection. A finding aid to the collection of prints, drawings, and watercolors can be found at:
In addition, Princeton owns a small collection of Rodin manuscripts, including fifty letters, cards, telegrams, and notes, of which about half are in the hand of the sculptor. A finding aid to this collection is at:

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