This Week in Princeton History for January 19-25

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, Woodrow Wilson refuses to have a ball, Princeton students fight to get into a class about married life, and more.

January 19, 1895—Marshall P. Wilder, the first comedian with a disability, performs at the Second Presbyterian Church in Princeton, with College of New Jersey (Princeton University) students in the audience.

Marshall Wilder flyer

Flyer advertising Marshall P. Wilder’s performance in Princeton January 19, 1895. Music Performance at Princeton Collection (AC205), Box 2.

January 20, 1913—At the request of president-elect Woodrow Wilson (formerly president of Princeton University), Washington’s Inaugural Committee cancels the Inaugural Ball.

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U.S. Presidents Taft and Wilson at the 1913 Inaugural Parade. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson Project Records (MC178), Box 445.

January 21, 1905—Geography Professor William Libbey leaves Princeton for Colon, where he will have a look at the excavation of the Panama Canal.

January 22, 1953—Registration for Princeton University’s “A Course on Marriage and Family Life” fills up in a few hours, with enrollment capped at 250 and restricted to seniors only.

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The first page outlining Princeton University’s 1951 marriage course. Later the document notes, “Greatest interest: you guessed it. Lectures 3 & 4 were by far most popular.” Office of Communications Records (AC168), Box 38, Folder 4. (Click to enlarge.)

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“I Pledge My Honor”

Final exams begin at Princeton University today. Professors, Lecturers, and Assistants in Instruction (Preceptors) will not be present while students are taking them, trusting them to police themselves. In return, the students will sign their exams under this handwritten statement: I pledge my honor that I have not violated the Honor Code during this examination.

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Students taking an exam in Princeton University’s McCosh 50, ca. 1950s. Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box MP163, Item No. 4402.

The Honor System, one of Princeton’s most distinctive traditions, was established and has been maintained almost exclusively by undergraduates. Cheating ran rampant at the College of New Jersey (Princeton University) in the late nineteenth century; students saw it as a way to outwit the faculty, while professors expended a great deal of energy trying to catch cheaters. Booth Tarkington (Class of 1893) described this rivalry as a “continuous sly warfare between the professor and the student.” Crib sheets were common, as was sharing answers during tests. Students who refused to collaborate were ridiculed. Reporting fellow students to the faculty was seen as dishonorable and unthinkable for most, while professors would stalk exam rooms looking for any inconsistencies. Sometimes faculty also hired extra proctors help keep an eye on students.

Student dissatisfaction with this culture of cheating and “sly warfare” peaked in 1893, when some of the most influential juniors and seniors proposed an honor pledge. Honor systems were not uncommon at southern schools, such as the College of William and Mary and the University of Virginia, and many Princeton undergraduates had gone to southern preparatory schools with prominent and successful honor systems. Senior Charles Ottley  (Class of 1893) and several juniors drew on their practical experience with the honor system at the Webb School in central Tennessee as they pushed for an honor system at Princeton.

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This Week in Princeton History for January 12-18

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, final exams prove stressful, the Nude Olympics meet their end, and more.

January 12, 1941—A pre-finals blackout distresses residents of five Princeton dormitories. The next morning, the Daily Princetonian will report: “After hesitatingly peering skyward to assure themselves that no Nazi bombers were heaving over the horizon, they swore that even in London they didn’t have to take exams the day following a blackout.”

January 13, 1893—In response to widespread cheating that many fear diminishes the accomplishments of those who do their own work, College of New Jersey (Princeton University) students call for an honor system. The Honor Code will be adopted and first used on an English Literature exam on January 26.

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Philip Ellicott Barringer ’38’s final exam in History 314 (The Renaissance and the Reformation), Spring 1938. Note the Honor Pledge’s now-outdated wording. Course Examinations Collection (AC054), Box 22. (Access to students’ academic records is governed by this policy.)

January 14, 1969—To protest the concept of grades, 27 Princeton philosophy majors go on “strike,” refusing to sign their final exams. Several other students in Philosophy 300 reportedly follow their lead in solidarity. Their effort to rid Princeton of grades ultimately fails, and the students will all identify their exams and accept the grades assigned by their professors several weeks later.

January 15, 1999—The New York Times reports that the Nude Olympics will likely not continue at Princeton after the year’s event resulted in the hospitalization of five students. The tradition, which evolved during the 1970s streaking fad and has been discouraged by the administration for years, consists of the sophomore class running laps in the nude around the Holder Courtyard after each year’s first snowfall. The Times article quotes Peter Dutton ’91: “Can’t undergraduates run naked in a restrained and dignified manner anymore?” (Ultimately, 1999’s Olympics will be the last naked frolic in the snow for Princeton’s undergraduates.)

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 1974 cartoon from the Daily Princetonian. Video of the 1986 Nude Olympics can be found here.

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This Week in Princeton History for January 5-11

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, Albert C. Kinsey’s groundbreaking report is sold out everywhere (even the library!), students urge the administration to admit women, and more.

January 5, 1948—The Albert C. Kinsey report, “Sexual Behavior in the Human Male,” is published. It will be immediately sold out at every bookstore in town. All of the University Library’s copies will be sent to the University Store and also sold so quickly that nobody notices the mistake until none are left.

January 6, 1919—The Faculty decide to accept the Department of War’s offer to establish a field artillery R.O.T.C. at Princeton. The program will include training with horses as well as weaponry.

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Princeton University R.O.T.C. with a canon outside Palmer Stadium, undated. Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box MP189, Image No. 5100.

January 7, 1914—Dr. John Miller Turpin Finney (Class of 1884), first president of the newly-formed American College of Surgeons, addresses the Medical Club in Dodge Hall.

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This photo of the College of New Jersey (Princeton University) Class of 1884 was donated to the archives by Dr. Finney’s wife. Historical Photograph Collection, Class Photographs Series (AC184), Box LP4.

January 8, 1965–The Daily Princetonian runs a special report on the damage admitting only men to the University is causing to its students and editorializes, “hopefully, we’ll be sending our daughters, as well as our sons, to Princeton.” The report concludes, “Today young men want women—not simply as sex objects, as those who lead the argument into rather fruitless digressions maintain—but as companions, as sharers of common experiences.”

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Princeton University’s (all male) 1965 Cheerleading Squad. Photo from the 1965 Bric-a-Brac.

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This Week in Princeton History for December 29-January 4

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, graduate alumni form their own organization, George Washington comes to town, and more.

December 29, 1939—William B. Scott (Class of 1877), Blair Professor of Geology, Emeritus, wins the Penrose Medal, the top prize in geosciences, from the Geological Society of America.

December 30, 1949—The Association of Princeton Graduate Alumni (APGA ) is founded.

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Promotional materials sent to graduate alumni following the founding of the Association for Princeton Graduate Alumni, 1950, Historical Subject Files Collection (AC109), Box 10, Folder 1.

January 1, 1951—Princeton University begins participation in the Social Security system.

January 2, 1777—George Washington and the Continental Army march from Trenton to Princeton, where they will liberate Nassau Hall and the rest of the College of New Jersey (Princeton University) campus from British occupation on January 3.

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Princeton has long celebrated its connection to George Washington and the American Revolution. This cover of an event program is found in the Washington’s Birthday Celebration Records (AC200).

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Happy Holidays from John Foster Dulles

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John Foster Dulles Papers (MC016), Box 567

John Foster Dulles, Princeton Class of 1908, devoted most of his life to public service, beginning in the late 1910s through his death in 1959. The John Foster Dulles Papers (MC016) at the Mudd Manuscript Library document his career, particularly his influence on United States foreign policy. Portions of the Dulles Papers are currently being digitized as part of a grant awarded to the Mudd Library by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). By the project’s end, the selected correspondence, diaries and journals, and speeches, statements, and press conferences series will be available online in their entirety, totaling over 146,000 pages of archival content.

Though the collection spans his lifetime, the John Foster Dulles Papers focus on Dulles’s service as the fifty-third Secretary of State under the Eisenhower administration. Dulles was formally appointed to the position on January 21, 1953. In December of that year, he made his first Christmas address to the American people, wishing them “peace on earth, good will to men.”

Pages from Christmas Greetings

John Foster Dulles Papers (MC016), Box 321

Check the blog for future posts about the progress of the John Foster Dulles digitization project. For more information about the Digitizing the Origins of the Cold War project, see some of our previous posts.

The Rittenhouse Orrery

Dear Mr. Mudd:

Q: What is an orrery, and how did Princeton University come to own one? How was it damaged in the Battle of Princeton?

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Rittenhouse Orrery on display in Firestone Library, 1954, Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box MP10.

A: An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system. Orreries were regarded as essential teaching equipment for 18th-century lectures on “natural philosophy” (the physical sciences). Although invented ca. 1700 by George Graham, they have been called orreries because English instrument maker John Rowley named a copy he made of Graham’s machine “The Orrery” in honor of Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery.

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Gillett G. Griffin, pen and ink drawing of David Rittenhouse designing his orrery, University Library Records (AC123), Box 302. Griffin was Princeton’s Curator of Graphic Arts 1952-1966.

David Rittenhouse, a Pennsylvania clockmaker, self-taught astronomer, and later the first director of the U.S. Mint, designed and built the College of New Jersey’s orrery (now Princeton University). In 1771, College President John Witherspoon purchased it from Rittenhouse for approximately £220 and installed it in Nassau Hall. The orrery instantly became the College’s most valuable asset. Rittenhouse’s original plans for the orrery included a central panel of four square feet showing the planets revolving around the Sun, and two smaller panels, one focused on Jupiter and Saturn, and the other on the Earth and the Moon, but all that remains today is the central panel, after damages during the military occupation of Nassau Hall in 1776-1777. A more complete example of a Rittenhouse Orrery has been preserved at the University of Pennsylvania Library.

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Gillett G. Griffin, pen and ink drawing of David Rittenhouse showing his orrery to Princeton president John Witherspoon, University Library Records (AC123), Box 302.

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This Week in Princeton History for December 22-28

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, a dorm thief is caught, a movie about an alum premieres in town, and more.

December 22, 1898—A granite monument in Arlington National Cemetery at the grave of Major General William W. Belknap, Class of 1848 and former Secretary of War under Ulysses S. Grant, is presented to the U.S. government.

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Photo taken in Washington, D.C. at what the caption describes as “a chance meeting of Bradley M. Thomas (Class of 1849), George Alexander Otis (Class of 1849), Alfred Alexander Woodhull (Class of 1856), Princeton President John Maclean (Class of 1816), and Gen. William Worth Belknap (Class of 1848).” Belknap is on the bottom left. Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box SP1, Item No. 4599.

December 23, 1952—A young man recently expelled from Harvard University’s English Ph.D. program who had been going into Princeton dorms and stealing a variety of student possessions is apprehended by a University proctor. At the time, he was wearing shoes he had stolen from a dorm room. The Mercer County Court will later send him to the Menlo State Insane Asylum.

December 24, 1915—University president John Grier Hibben and his wife invite any students still on campus to have dinner in their home.

December 25, 2001—A Beautiful Mind opens at the Garden Theatre, four days before being shown nationwide. The movie, filmed on the Princeton University campus, is loosely based on Sylvia Nasar’s biography of John Nash *50 by the same name.

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Ron Howard directs Russell Crowe during filming of A Beautiful Mind, 2001. Office of Communications Records (AC168), Box 198.

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This Week in Princeton History for December 15-21

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, the University gets a radio station, a movie filmed on campus premieres in town, and more.

December 15, 1940—WPRB’s predecessor, WPRU, gets its start with daily broadcasts from 7:15 to 9:15 a.m. and from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. The campus radio station has humble beginnings; as the Daily Princetonian reports, “signals may possibly penetrate as far as the Graduate College.”

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WPRU’s Frederick Rheinstein ’49 interviews his “Man in the Street” (Nassau Street) of the week for the “Roaming with Rhinestein” program, 1946. This particular episode features “a local shoe shine boy” talking about how his business is going, while students and townspeople look on. Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box MP170, Item No. 4806.

December 16, 1966—The Princeton Township zoning board grants the University a variance to allow for the building of Fine Hall Tower.

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Two students sit and talk with Fine Hall under construction in the background. Historical Photograph Collection, Grounds and Buildings Series (AC111), Box MP43, Item No. 1334.

December 17, 1884—Princeton students leave for a two-week break that the Daily Princetonian has editorialized will not be sufficient: “The great part of the student’s body will be worn out by the strain which preparation for examinations necessitate. And the vacation which begins at that time will not be taken as the fulfillment of a long established custom, but of physiological laws which require that nature should be allowed to rebuild what the examination system has destroyed.”

December 19, 1994—I.Q., a movie set in a highly fictionalized version of Albert Einstein’s Princeton and filmed on campus and around town, premieres at the Garden Theatre on Nassau Street. The movie tells the love story between Einstein’s (Walter Matthau) fictional niece, Catherine (Meg Ryan), a Princeton University Ph.D. candidate in mathematics, and Ed (Tim Robbins), a local mechanic. Catherine’s fiancé, James (Stephen Fry), a Princeton psychology professor, proves to be an obstacle to the union of Catherine and Ed, until Einstein and his friends help Ed win Catherine’s heart (scientists Nathan Liebknecht (Joseph Maher), Kurt Gödel (Lou Jacobi), and Boris Podolsky (Gene Saks)).I.Q._Premiere_Sign_AC168_Box_196

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Tim Robbins, Susan Sarandon, and Joseph Maher at the premiere of I.Q. in Princeton’s Garden Theatre. Office of Communications Records (AC168), Box 196.

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This Week in Princeton History for December 8-14

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, the Triangle Show appears on national television, the Board of Trustees votes to establish the Graduate School, and more.

December 8, 1988—The Student Friends of the Art Museum get the first look at the renovated museum’s new wing.

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Renovations of the Princeton University Art Museum underway, 1985, Historical Photograph Collection (AC111), Grounds and Buildings Series, Box AD1, Folder 7.

December 9, 1947—Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, president of the World Jewish Congress and co-founder of the NAACP, speaks in McCosh 50 during Hanukkah, with celebratory words about the founding of the modern state of Israel.

December 10, 1950—After suspension and flagging interest in the 1940s due to World War II, Princeton’s Triangle Show revives itself with the first of what will be many annual appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show.

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Mark Lawrence ’42, Robert Jennings, Ed Sullivan, and Fred Kelley, 1950, Triangle Club Records, AC122, Box 74.

December 13, 1900—The Board of Trustees votes to establish a Graduate School, and appoints Andrew Fleming West, Class of 1874, its first dean.

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Andrew Fleming West, 1889, Historical Photograph Collection, Faculty Photographs Series, Box FAC103.

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