Which came first? The Tiger or his stripes?

Dear Mr. Mudd,

What is the origin of the Princeton Tiger? Which came first the tiger or his stripes?

TigerHead

In 1992 the Office of Communications produced a photo essay concerning this very topic! The answer is that Princeton adopted the stripes long before the actual tiger!

Here is an excerpt from that essay:

On October 12, 1868, the faculty of the College of New Jersey  (later to be called Princeton University) passed a resolution permitting students “to adopt and wear as the college badge an orange colored Ribbon bearing upon it the word Princeton,” thus simultaneously keeping alive the college’s historical association with the Royal Dutch House of Orange while publicizing the unofficial college name, Princeton.

But even earlier—June of 1867—Princeton baseball players wore orange ribbons with black writing (’69 B.B.C.) at their match with Yale. At a Sarasota regatta in 1874, members of the freshman crew wore hatbands of black and orange silk ribbons. And for its 1876 football game with Yale, Princeton’s team proudly wore black jerseys with an orange P on the chest. 

During the celebration of Princeton’s sesquicentennial in 1896, the trustees not only changed the college’s name to Princeton University but also adopted orange and black as the official colors for academic gowns. The design reflects the tiger’s colors though not its many stripes; yet, undoubtedly a tiger’s heart beats beneath these conservative robes. For several years college cheers had contained the rallying cry of “tiger,” and orange and black were growing in use as the school colors Sportswriters of the day started to call the players “tigers.” The tiger and its colors began to appear in college songs, student publications, and even the name of an eating club. Then they showed up carved in stone, beginning most conspicuously with the large tigers placed atop the gateposts between Little and Blair halls in 1902. Very permanent tigers were cropping up on buildings all over campus.

By 1911 the tiger had become so firmly established as the University mascot that the Class of 1879 replaced the pair of lions that had flanked the doorway of Nassau Hall… with the regal tigers that still guard the entrance, acknowledging the tiger as a unifying decorative element on campus.

Lions at the entrance to Nassau Hall - Historical Photograph Collection, Grounds and Buildings, Box MP81 Image 3306

Lions at the entrance to Nassau Hall – Historical Photograph Collection, Grounds and Buildings, Box MP81 Image 3306

Tiger enthusiasm reached new heights in 1923 when the father of Albert Red Howard ’25 captured a young Bengal tiger while on an expedition to India and sent it to Princeton as a mascot. In the end, the combination of community anxiety and the cost of care led to the tiger’s ultimate transfer to a New Jersey zoo, but it was not the last live tiger to saunter through the Princeton campus.

Since the 1940s, a less-alarming live tiger has appeared regularly at Princeton football and basketball games or at least an anthropomorphized one. Dressed in forty pounds of faux fur, flowing tail, and padded paws, countless Princeton students have donned the tiger suit to entertain sports crowds and socialize at various events. In 1973 a few years after women were first admitted to the University, a tigress accompanied the well-known male mascot for the first time, distinguished by orange bows on her head and tail. Today, with the novelty of coeducation long past, there is only one tiger that entertains children, rallies school spirit, and gets chased by members of the opposing team’s school. In the end, one tiger is symbolically fitting: one tiger for one Princeton.

Tigers at Nassau Hall 1911 - AC111 Box MP71

Tigers at Nassau Hall 1911 – AC111 Box MP71

The University Archives has a plethora of images, documents and tiger references. In the Historical Subject Files, Box 393, one can find an article by the former Keeper of Princetoniana, Frederic Fox ’39.

Within this article Fox notes that the “Tiger did not come to Princeton easily.” Officially the tiger’s entrance came about due to members of the Class of 1879, though originally those classmates of Woodrow Wilson preferred lions. In 1889, their 10th reunion, they gave the University a pair of lions because it was the emblem of the royal house of Orange-Nassau.

These two lions flanked the entrance to Nassau Hall and were attributed to the French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the designer of the Statue of Liberty. However, in the 1990s it was determined that they were produced by the now-defunct J. L. Mott Ironworks, a company that sold zinc statuary and bathroom fixtures through catalogs. The lions stood guard at Nassau Hall from 1889 to until they were removed in 1911. The current tigers by the artist A.P. Proctor were presented to the university by the Class of 1879 in 1911, with the lions moved to the steps of 1879 Hall, where they stood for about 60 years before moving into storage. They were re-discovered in 1998 in the basement of Palmer Hall, restored and placed back in public view (see final article in link). Today the they can be seen on the steps heading from Goheen Walk to Wilcox Hall.

PU museum lions

Here at the archives we have a copy of the Proctor tiger that guards our card catalog in the public area.

Tiger Miniature

 

We also have this furry unofficial Tiger friend to greet you at the front desk, courtesy of our former employee, Matt Reeder!

Furry Tiger

Related Sources

Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series, circa 1850-1996

Historical Photograph Collection, Grounds and Buildings Series, circa 1850-1980

Historical Subject Files Collection, 1746-2005

Leitch, Alexander. A Princeton Companion, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1978). Also available online.

Oversize Collection

Princeton Alumni Weekly Photograph Collection, c. 1968- c. 1991

Princeton Memorabilia Collection, c. 1782-2000

Princeton Music Collection, 1849-1982

Princetoniana Committee: Campus Traditions, History, and Lore sections on The Tiger.

Smagorinsky, Margaret. The Regalia of Princeton University: Pomp, Circumstance, and Accoutrements of Academia. (Princeton, New Jersey: Office of Communications and Publications, Princeton University, c. 1994).

Tiger Magazine

“Tigers prowl around the Princeton campus.” Web story and photo essay.

View more photos from the Historical Photograph Collection: Grounds and Buildings Series online here.

Princeton Alumni Weekly article, February 8th 2012, Why Tigers?

For more about tigers on campus see this article.

Excerpts from this post have been adapted from the FAQ written by Susan Hamson (2003)

 

“The Wa” as it was.

On August 27th, 1974, Princeton University’s then News Bureau, announced that Princeton’s First Wawa had opened at 140 University Place at the old Doten Garage and Studebaker dealership. Following the closing of the garage the space was used as a warehouse for the University dorm and food services. Renovations were made to adapt the space for the convenience store.

Here we take a look back at the old “Wa” as we celebrate the opening of the brand new Wawa as a part of the arts and transit project.

The two following photos depict the architectural mock ups of the space.

Office of Physical Planning Records - AC154 Cabinet 4, Drawer 7

Original architectural mock up of Wawa Food Stores – Office of Physical Planning Records – AC154 Cabinet 4, Drawer 7

Office of Physical Planning Records - AC154 Cabinet 4, Drawer 7

Office of Physical Planning Records – AC154 Cabinet 4, Drawer 7

Many of the below photos are from our Historical Photograph Collection: Grounds and Buildings Series which has been digitized in the Princeton University Digital Library

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Related Articles:

Ode to Wawa, by Ellie Kemper ’02

Fully searchable articles of the following papers are online.

 

Is or was there a Princeton Law School? Not really!

A question that is frequently asked of us here at the archives is whether or not there was ever a “Law School.” The answer to that is, not really!

gavelandlawbooks

Initial attempts to create a law school at the College of New Jersey (as Princeton University was then known) were unsuccessful. The College trustees appointed a committee to hire a law professor in 1824, but the first two choices (Richard Stockton ‘1779 and John Van Cleve ‘1797) both died before they could begin classes. In 1835 James Kent declined to take the position offered, as did Justice Smith Thompson, Theodore Frelinghuysen, and retired governor Samuel L. Southard ‘1804 in 1839.

After these unsuccessful attempts, the College finally established a law school in 1846. The school boasted three prominent professors, James S. Green, a U.S. attorney; Richard Stockton Field ‘1821, the New Jersey Attorney General; and Joseph C. Hornblower, the retired Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court. Field built the law school building at his own expense on a piece of his family’s land and named it Ivy Hall. The building, now maintained by Trinity Episcopal Church, still stands in Princeton at its original location on Mercer Street facing Alexander Road .

The law school was largely independent from the College. The College could not afford to contribute any funding to the law school, and it did not intervene in curriculum or degree decisions. None of the law faculty ever attended even a single faculty meeting at the College. Law students were allowed, however, to attend chapel and lectures at the College and use its library.

The professors designed the program to be completed in three years, although it could be finished in two. On the recommendation of the law faculty, the College awarded a bachelor of laws degree to students who had completed the program. Seven law students graduated before instruction at the law school was discontinued, due to lack of funds, in 1852. The school officially closed in 1855.

In 1871 the trustees instructed the business committee to look into reviving the law school, but the issue did not receive serious attention. In 1890 President Francis Landey Patton remarked to a gathering of alumni, “We have Princeton philosophy, Princeton theology, but we have to go to Harvard and Columbia for our law. Gentlemen, that is a shame. Just as soon as I find a man with a half a million, I am going to found a law school.” Nothing came of this pronouncement either, probably because a man with half a million never showed up. Patton’s successor, Woodrow Wilson (who was elevated to the presidency from his position as professor of jurisprudence), also wanted to start a law school, but was too busy battling faculty, trustees, and alumni over the graduate school and the residential college plan to concentrate on forming a new school.

World War I clouded hopes of acquiring a law school in New York City in 1918, but a proposal to create a law school was seriously considered from 1923 to 1925. However, in 1926 the idea was abandoned in order to conserve funds. Professor John Dickinson’s proposal for a law school in 1929 received little attention. On the recommendation of President William G. Bowen in 1974, the trustees appointed a committee to determine the resources necessary to establish a law school. The president and the trustees decided, after the committee issued its report, that Princeton ought to focus on maintaining the quality of its current programs instead of adding new ones during that time of fiscal insecurity.


Related Sources

Board of Trustees Minutes and Records, 1746-Present. Entries on the following dates, at least, contain references to creating a law school: June 26, 1871; January 23, 1897; December 14, 1899; October 24, 1918; April 12, 1923; April 11, 1929; and September 1974 (restricted until 2024).

Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the College of New Jersey (Princeton, New Jersey: John T. Robinson, printer). Volumes for the years 1846-1847 to 1854-1855 contain the names of the law professors, students, and a description of the program.

Historical Subject Files Collection, 1746-2005

Leitch, Alexander. A Princeton Companion. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976). Also available online.

Link, Arthur S., ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press). Vol. 7, 1969. Pages 63-68 discuss Princeton University President Francis Patton’s and Woodrow Wilson’s attempts at establishing a law school.

Office of the Dean of the College Records, 1919-2001

Office of the President: William G. Bowen Subgroup, 1940-1998

Office of the Provost, 1953-1996

Office of the Secretary Records, 1852-2001

Princeton Alumni Weekly. Entries on the following dates, at least, contain references to the topic of a law school: November 26, 1974; March 11, 1975; and December 8, 1975.

Waller, Amelia Carpenter. “Princeton for the Nation’s Service”: The Debate Over Legal Education at Princeton.Waller’s senior thesis (110 pages) was submitted to the History Department of Princeton University in 1979. This thesis can be viewed on request at the Mudd Manuscript Library and can also be found in the “Law School” files of the Historical Subject Files. For information on how to request a photocopy of this thesis please click here.

Wertenbacher, Thomas Jefferson. Princeton : 1748-1896 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1946). Pages 229-232 and 377-378.

Note: This post, authored by Matthew Reeder, was previously on the Mudd Manuscript Library’s FAQ website and has been moved to our blog as part of our website upgrade.

Princeton University Records Management Launches New Website

files

Princeton University Records Management has a new look (and a new online address)! The new records management website replaces the records management guidelines website created in 2007. Those who visit the original website will be redirected to the new website, which includes new records management policies and retention schedules as well as information on a wide range of records management topics. The website is the place for University employees to start when they are determining how to manage the records in their custody.

Some features of the records management website include:

  • Policies and procedures
  • A records management manual
  • A new record retention schedule for University financial records (coming Summer 2014)
  • The records retention guidelines that were introduced in 2007, which will continue to provide guidance until formal retention schedules are created in these areas
  • A menu of services and training provided by Princeton University Records Management
  • An integrated blog

Please browse through the website and send feedback. Our goal is to help you integrate records management into your workflow as seamlessly as possible.

Signed, Sealed, Delivered letters donated to University Archives

by: Dan Linke

With the rise of email more than 20 years ago, many have lamented the decline of the handwritten letter, but with her new book, Signed, Sealed, Delivered: Celebrating the Joys of Letter Writing (Simon & Schuster, 2014), Nina Sankovitch has done much more than that.  Drawing on letters from across the ages, she explains why putting pen to paper can communicate much more than the thoughts and ideas on the page.

signedsealeddelivered

Inspired by a cache of letters written by a Princeton undergraduate to his parents that she uncovered in the tool shed of a dilapidated New York home she bought more than a decade ago, Sankovitch originally read the letters in small batches, as a break from the toils of mothering three young children.  Years later, with her oldest son readying himself for college, Sankovitch revisited the letters and began her mediation on the important  and wide range of human connections that letters make, using the Princeton student’s letters and their discovery as the basis for the book’s first chapter.

James B. Seligman

The letters were composed by James B. Seligman, Class of 1912. According to his Nassau Herald entry, “Jimmie” grew up in New York City, was a member of Clio, studied economics, and hoped to go into banking.  He was also Jewish (“Hebrew” in the parlance of the day), just one of five such students in a class of almost 300.  He became an independent stockbroker and a member of the New York Stock Exchange where he was a floor trader.  The February 22, 1941 New Yorker called him “one of the wittiest men on the Floor.”

That wit is reflected in his surviving letters.  Some excerpts that Sankovitch highlights in her book:

“I am getting a good college education, developing like a film, apologizing to the grass every time I step on it, scrambling like an egg, yelling like a bear, telling the upperclassmen to go to @#$ …”

 “I am once more sorry to say, with tears in my nose, and with shaking toes, etc that I didn’t pass French…Thanking you again for your kind applause, I will close as Le Student Francais.”

“Chapel was great. I never laughed so much in my life.”

And in answering what he called the “ponderous interrogations” sent by his mother: “my diet consists principally of food.  My health is fine.”

He also wrote of his classes – “Woodrow Wilson lectures to us in Jurisprudence – It is a treat to listen to him speak.”

Now Sankovitch has donated Seligman’s correspondence, consisting of about 100 letters and postcards, to the Princeton University Archives, and they will join those of other students in the Student Correspondence and Writings Collection (AC334). This collection, along with a number of others, contains the correspondence of about two dozen students ranging over three centuries, and collectively it provides insights into Princeton undergraduate life that can be found nowhere else.  The earliest letters date from 1768 and the most recent is a collection of printed emails from a member of the Class of 1997.

Records Management and University Archives: Perfect Together

The job of the Princeton University Archives is to keep in perpetuity the University records that should be kept, and the University Records Manager, Anne Marie Phillips, helps to identify them.  She also helps offices determine how long non-permanent records must be kept before they can be destroyed.

With the University’s first financial records retention schedule coming online, she identified almost 300 boxes of journal vouchers and check registers from the 1950s and 1960s held within the Archives that should have been destroyed long ago.

containersThese records filled 21 bins (see above photo) and weighed over 6,000 pounds.  Now that shelf space can be used for permanent records that the Archives will keep for as long as there is a Princeton.

loadedtruckloadingtruck

 

Keen New Addition: Photo Album Purchase Contains Rare Images of Woodrow Wilson

by Dan Linke

img_016With more than 600 books on Woodrow Wilson, including Scott Berg’s recent autobiography, is there anything new about Woodrow Wilson? With the acquisition of the photo album of Paul Edward Keen *15, the answer is yes.

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His photo album contains a dozen images of Wilson’s 1913 inauguration and his 1915 return to campus to vote, as well as many more campus and local scenes that he took while studying at the Princeton Theological Seminary (1912-16) and Princeton University (MA1915).

About half the album contains photographs that Keen took elsewhere such as Philadelphia and Antietam, but the latter half is filled with images of the town of Princeton and the campuses of the University and Seminary.  In one 1915 photograph Wilson’s black mourning armband is visible on his upper left arm; Edith, his wife of 29 years, died in August 1914.

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Born in Yorkana, Pennsylvania in 1888, after graduation from the Seminary, Keen was ordained in the United Evangelical Church and led the congregation in Wrightsville, PA, before becoming a Bible professor at Allbright College (his undergraduate alma mater) in 1924.  Starting in 1928, he taught at the Evangelical Theological Seminary in Napersville, Illinois, until his death in 1958.

Here are just 14 images found within the album:

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The album was purchased, in part, with funds provided by the Goreff/Neuwirth Charitable Trust in honor of Danielle van Jaarsveld, Class of 1995.

 

John F. Kennedy’s Princeton University undergraduate alumni file

Today marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination.  The Mudd Manuscript Library celebrated the 50th anniversary of Kennedy’s election in 2010 with an exhibition and more than 30 Public Policy collections contain material related to Kennedy.

grades and Pic

Within the University Archives, his undergraduate alumni file contains his application to the University, details his brief time on campus and reasons for his departure, and some later correspondence with and about him.

application

The first page of JFK’s Princeton Application

The file contains his application essay that is very similar to his Harvard essay, which was released in 2011. This digitized file is part of the Mudd Library’s ongoing digitization efforts.

by: Dan Linke

USS Princeton

USSPrinceton ExplodingOn October 24th, 1944 the U.S.S. Princeton (CVL-23) sank during battle.

The University Archives here at Mudd Library holds the U.S.S. Princeton [C.V.L.-23] Collection which contains research materials for the book, Carrier Down, by Marcia Clark in which the history of the U.S.S. Princeton is chronicled.

We have begun the digitization process of this collection to mark the anniversary of the tragic loss, almost 70 years ago.

We have attached the first few folders of materials Marsha Clark collected for the book, Carrier Down. The materials include typed transcripts of tape-recorded interviews, newspaper clippings, and recollections written by individual men who served on the U.S.S. Princeton [C.V.L.-23] when it was bombed October 24, 1944. The amount of materials varies from folder to folder. Once the entire collection is digitized it will be connected to the finding aid for your viewing and research.

USS Princeton Interviews Folders 1-9 including:

Abriel, Warren W.
Addison, Larry
Amonte, Salvatore L.
Arlequeeuw, Ray
Bardshar, Fred
Beckett, John
Bell, Frank E.
Bellevance, Henry R.
Blyth, Les

Related links:

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/leyteglf/cvl23-l.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Princeton_(CVL-23)

Mudd in Print

Have you ever wondered what our researchers are up to in the reading room? Many of them are working fervently towards producing highly esteemed, ground-breaking, and sometimes award-winning books.

This entry features a sample of recent publications, each developed through extensive research at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Drawing from material found in the Princeton University Archives, as well as the Public Policy Papers, these works demonstrate the varied research potential of the collections housed in our library. (All descriptions from Amazon.com.)

Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities by Craig Steven Wilder

Ebony and Ivy

In Ebony and Ivy, Craig Steven Wilder, a rising star in the profession of history, lays bare uncomfortable truths about race, slavery, and the American academy.

The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War by Stephen Kinzer

TheBrothers
A joint biography of John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles, who led the United States into an unseen war that decisively shaped today’s world.

Wilson by A. Scott Berg

Wilson

From Pulitzer Prize–winning, #1 New York Times–bestselling author A. Scott Berg comes the definitive—and revelatory—biography of one of the great American figures of modern times.

George F. Kennan: An American Life by John Lewis Gaddis

kennan

Three decades in the making, the definitive, authorized biography of one of Cold War America’s most prominent and most troubled grand strategists.

Princeton: America’s Campus by W. Barksdale Maynard

americascampus

Neither a straightforward architectural history nor a simple guidebook, it weaves social history and the built fabric into a biography of a great American place.

These books are also on display in the lobby case at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library.

by: Amanda Pike