This Week in Princeton History for July 4-10

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, a new mandatory fitness program begins, a professor’s research revises a 50-year-old theory, and more.

July 4, 1938—A record-setting crowd of 25,000 turns out to view a fireworks display in Palmer Stadium that includes exploding renderings of a man on a flying trapeze, Nassau Hall, George Washington, and the emblem of the American Legion.

July 5, 1764—The Pennsylvania Journal reports that popular evangelist George Whitefield is at the College of New Jersey (Princeton) while making his way from New York to Philadelphia.

July 6, 1942—A new mandatory fitness program designed to ensure all Princeton University students are physically prepared for war service begins.

Running_an_obstacle_course_ca_1941-45_AC112_Box_MP214_Image_5630

Students run an obstacle course at Princeton University ca. 1941-1945. Official United States Navy photograph, Historical Photograph Collection, Campus Life Series (AC112), Box MP214, Image No. 5630.

July 10, 1998—Science reports on Princeton University chemistry professor Warren Warren’s recent discovery of flawed assumptions in the 50-year-old theory underlying nuclear magnetic resonance spectoscopy (NMR), the technology used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. This work will lead to the use of new types of contrast in MRI scans and clearer images.

Warren_Warren_Pages from PrincetonBulletin_1998-11-23_v88_n010_0001

Warren Warren and research associate Sangdoo Ahn with NMR spectrometer, 1998. Photo from Princeton Weekly Bulletin.

For last week’s installment in this series, click here.

Fact check: We always strive for accuracy, but if you believe you see an error, please contact us.

Dr. Levi Myers and Antebellum American Jewishness

In our previous research into the earliest records of Jewish presence at Princeton University, we uncovered something unexpected. Our Undergraduate Alumni Records 1748-1920 file on Mordecai Myers, Class of 1812, contains correspondence between Mordecai’s father, Levi Myers, and a man named Cleland Kinlock. Though they do not mention Princeton or Mordecai Myers, and thus would not ordinarily be found in an alumni file, these letters offer a fascinating look into antebellum American Jewish reflection on religious identity.

Levi Myers, the son of another Mordecai Myers and Esther Cohen Myers, was born October 26, 1767 in Jacksonboro, South Carolina. His parents had moved to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1750, where Esther Cohen’s father served as the rabbi of Beth Elohim Synagogue. Mordecai and Esther sent their son to study medicine in Charleston at the age of 15. After apprenticeships with Drs. Haynes and Ramsay, Myers went on to medical school at Edinburgh University in 1785. He returned to South Carolina in 1789, where he set up a successful medical practice of his own. In 1794, he married Frances Minis. Together they had 8 children, including the Mordecai Myers who later went to study at the College of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1809.

In September 1822, a hurricane hit the South Carolina coast, destroying the house where the Myers family lived. There was only one survivor, a household servant. Levi, Frances, four of their children, and nine members of their household staff (very likely including several slaves) all died when the house collapsed.

Though a few letters sent to Dr. Myers are found in his son’s Undergraduate Alumni Records file, we’ve chosen to highlight the one most focused on Jewish identity. We’ve done our best at offering a transcription, but some of the text still eludes us, and we welcome any suggestions to fill in the blanks. We believe the “Bishop Warburton” referenced here is William Warburton, an Anglican bishop of Gloucester who was known for controversial writings. Click each image to enlarge.
Kinlock_1_AC104_Box_72 Kinlock_2_AC104_Box_72

June 15, 1818

 

Dear Sir,

 

It was one of the peculiarities of the Hebrew People that they never sought to make proselytes, in which I am, I assure you, as good a Jew as any one of the descendants of Abraham. The fact is that I have no sort of confidence in my own opinions, nor indeed in the opinions of others, for such is my idea of the weakness & [______?] & fallibility of human nature, the imperfections of human language & the indistinctness of our ideas that I would whether any man that ever breathed ever knew the truth of anything, or if he had known it whether he would be able to communicate it to others. My mind is oppressed & crushed by a sense of my own ignorance, & by the discouraging tendency of my own notions, & I now consider myself as a bad man if I placed these notions within the view of those who might be injured by them. You, I believe are not liable to be injured by these notions of mine & therefore, at your request, I trust these to you, begging that you will be as careful of them as I am myself, & that you will return them to my overseer [_______?] at your leisure.

 

I would be much obliged to you if you could procure me by loan or by purchase any of the works which contain exposition of your learned of their arguments against Christianity, or org. texts which had been quoted against Bishop Warburton or said by him to be redoles & riddles he says that they contain for him. Now what those texts were which learning & insolence could not twist & turn to his own purposes I cannot imagine & I would like much to know.

 

Your Dear Sir Most Sincerely,

Cleland Kinlock

Sources:

Collins, Kenneth. “Levi Myers (1767-1822): An Eighteenth Century Glasgow Medical Graduate from South Carolina.” Journal of Medical Biography (2014).

Undergraduate Alumni Records 1748-1920 (AC104).

This Week in Princeton History for June 27-July 3

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, Ulysses S Grant visits the campus, women take classes for the first time, and more.

June 27, 1871—Sitting U.S. President Ulysses S Grant visits the College of New Jersey (Princeton) for the first time.

Ulysses_Grant_MC205_Box_52_Folder_39

Sketch of Ulysses S Grant by Emery Kelen, undated. Derso and Kelen Collection (MC205), Box 52, Folder 39.

Continue reading

The Bank Holiday of 1933 at Princeton University

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated President of the United States on Saturday, March 4, 1933. Immediately following his inauguration weekend, at 1:00 AM on March 6, Roosevelt issued Proclamation 2039. This action ordered all banks in the United States to close. No one would be able to withdraw, transfer, or deposit money between Monday, March 6 and Thursday, March 9. But even after some banks were allowed to reopen, those deemed to be in danger of failing would remain closed until they were deemed sound. This emergency measure was intended to prevent runs on banks that would cause a catastrophic ripple effect throughout a fragile economy, giving Congress time to pass legislation to shore up the nation’s banking system. On March 9, they passed the Emergency Banking Act. Gradually, banks reopened, now backed by the Federal Reserve. If a bank failed, account holders were insured against the loss, removing motivation to withdraw and hoard government-issued scrip.

In the interim, citizens all over the United States scrambled to find solutions to the problems that nearly a week or more without access to currency, without warning, would cause. One popular solution was for individuals and private corporations to issue their own scrip to circulate locally. Newspapers, in particular, commonly offered scrip, because they had ready access to printing presses.

Scrip_AC285_Box_2

Daily Princetonian scrip, 1933. Daily Princetonian General Records (AC285), Box 2.

Continue reading

This Week in Princeton History for June 20-26

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, the first collegiate track contest is held on campus, Japanese visitors ceremonially forgive scientists for their role in the development of the atomic bomb, and more.

June 20, 1779—William Richardson Davie (Class of 1776) leads a charge against the British at the Battle of Stono Ferry. He is wounded and falls off his horse, but evades capture.

June 21, 1873—The first collegiate track contest in the United States is held at the College of New Jersey (Princeton).

Caledonian_Games_June_21_AC042_Box_17

Program from Caledonian Games, College of New Jersey (Princeton), June 21, 1873. Athletic Programs Collection (AC042), Box 17, Folder 1.

Continue reading

“A Princeton Student’s Letter to His Father” and the Election of 1912

With Father’s Day coming up this weekend and the United States in the midst of a particularly contentious election season, this seemed like perfect timing to highlight a 1912 pamphlet found in the Princeton University Publications Collection (AC364), “A Princeton Student’s Letter to His Father and His Father’s Reply” (Box 2).

Pamphlet_AC364_Box_2 Continue reading

This Week in Princeton History for June 13-19

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, the campus newspaper gets its start, a senior carries the Olympic torch, and more.

June 13, 1908—The first-ever session of Princeton Summer Camp begins with 17 boys from Philadelphia. In later years, the camp will become the Princeton-Blairstown Center.

Princeton_Summer_Campers_1916_AC135_Box_11_Folder_13

Princeton Summer Campers at the shore, 1916. Student Christian Association Records (AC125), Box 11, Folder 13.

Continue reading

A Hope and A Hypothesis: The Curious Case of the Sonia Sotomayor ’76 Interview

Briana Christophers ‘17, a rising senior at Princeton University, made a discovery in the University Archives that solved a mystery we archivists didn’t know existed. In March, Briana visited us at the Mudd Manuscript Library, a visit arranged by Mudd’s Assistant University Archivist for Technical Services, Alexis Antracoli, in response to a petition Briana helped author and circulate through the Latinx Collective. Alexis coordinated the visit to respond directly to the petition’s section about the lack of Latinx presence and history at Princeton. In that section, the Collective stated the following needs, to:

1) Compile information on the contributions of students of color to this campus and beyond.

2) Organize the Mudd Manuscript Library resources related to students of color and the Third World Center/Carl A. Fields Center.

3) Collect information from alumni to create a permanent Students of Color at Princeton archive.

Thus, the purpose of Briana’s visit—which I attended as did my colleague, Lynn Durgin—was to affirm the truth behind the Collective’s observation, brainstorm about different ways for the Archives to do better, and allow Briana a chance to comb through the sparse records we do have pertaining to the history of Latinx students at Princeton. In the course of her perusing the Historical Subject Files, Briana stumbled upon something that few current undergraduate students have ever seen before: a 3.5’’ floppy disk.

3.5-inch floppy disk found by Briana Christophers '2017.

3.5-inch floppy disk found by Briana Christophers ’17 in AC109, Historical Subject Files.

Continue reading

This Week in Princeton History for June 6-12

In this week’s installment of our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its faculty, students, and alumni, a decision is reached about the location of the Graduate College, swords are banned from campus, and more.

June 7, 1910—A long battle ends when the Board of Trustees accepts the bequest of Isaac Wyman, Class of 1848, and with it Dean Andrew Fleming West’s plan to build the Graduate College across from the Springdale Golf Club. Woodrow Wilson, whose hopes of locating the College in the center of campus have been dashed, will resign his University presidency and leave Princeton for politics as a result.

Wilson's_GC_plan_AC127_Box_27_Folder_5

Woodrow Wilson’s plan for the Graduate College imagined dormitories built adjacent to the existing 1879 Hall (at Washington & Prospect) to create inner and outer courtyards. Today, this space is occupied by the Woolworth Center, home of the Department of Music. Graduate School Records (AC127), Box 27, Folder 5. Click to enlarge.

Continue reading

NHPRC-Funded Digitization Grant Final Report

In December 2012, the Mudd Library announced that we had received a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) to digitize the most frequently accessed portions of six highly-used collections documenting United States foreign policy and the origins of the Cold War. We are pleased to announce that as of December 2015, all of the series and subseries selected for digitization— over 350,000 pages of documents— are freely available to view and download from Princeton University’s finding aids site (a complete page breakdown by collection is listed below). Now individuals anywhere in the world can read John Foster Dulles’s first major speech outlining the policy of “massive retaliation,” George Kennan’s unsent letter to Walter Lippmann regarding containment, and a myriad of other one-of-a-kind materials from any computer or device, at any time of day.

page totals

The digitization of archival materials is an expansion of the Mudd Library’s ongoing mission to make our holdings accessible to a wider set of users. While the completion of this specific project is an important step forward in its own right, we also knew that this project was going to be part of a bigger picture. From the start, our goal was to use the lessons learned from this project to create sustainable large-scale digitization workflows for future implementation at the Mudd Library, and potentially other archival repositories, as well.

Continue reading