Bonfire!!!

UPDATE!! Following the Princeton Victory over Yale this weekend we will have yet another BONFIRE this Sunday, November 24th at 7pm. In the meantime, check out our blog from last year about the history of the tradition. Plus, we have added a few “new” archival photos!

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On Saturday, November 17th at 7:00 pm, we went back to Cannon Green to re-light a fire that has been dormant for six years, the BONFIRE!

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The bonfire is one of the oldest traditions at Princeton University. The Princetoniana Committee, part of the Alumni Association, describes the fire as “one of the most memorable– and sporadic– of all traditional Princeton activities.” The celebratory fire occurs only after the Princeton football team has defeated both Yale and Harvard.

“According to tradition, the construction of the Bonfire rested with the Dink Wearing Freshmen. It was their responsibility to gather wood from the surrounding area, often aided in large part by townspeople and campus construction workers. Once a tall pyre had been placed in the center of Cannon Green, the final adornments usually included an outhouse and an effigy of John Harvard or a Yale Bulldog, or both.” – Princetoniana Committee

Here we showcase just a few of the many historical photographs of bonfires that are in the Princeton University Archives, housed here at the Mudd Manuscript Library. The following reside in the Historical Photograph Collection: Campus Life (AC112)  and the Office of Communications Records (AC168).

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Remnants of the 1897 bonfire

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Gathering the materials for the 1901 fire.

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A large pyre for the 1914 fire

Students turn away from the heat of the flames during the 1946 fire.

Students turn away from the heat of the flames during the 1946 fire.

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From 1948: the outhouse is shown with Yale Bowl painted on the side

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Football coach Charlie Caldwell ’25 and team captain George Chandler ’51 lighting the bonfire in 1950.

A closer look at the outhouse from the 1952 championship event.

A closer look at the outhouse from the 1952 championship event.

 

Huge flames during the 1981 bonfire.

Huge flames during the 1981 bonfire.

 

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Students watch the 1985 fire from the trees.

 

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The Princeton Tiger lights the 1994 bonfire.

2006

The most recent fire in 2006. Photo courtesy: John Jameson, Office of Communications

PAW Photo from 2013 - Credit - Beverly Schaefer

PAW Photo from 2013 – Credit – Beverly Schaefer

Princeton Pause also compiled a video from the 2006 fire featuring items from our archives.

More photographs can be viewed in person by visiting the Mudd Reading Room. Digital copies of photos are also available. Start your search with our Historical Photograph Database. 

If you are attending and sharing photos using Twitter or Instagram, please use the hashtag #bonfirePU and contribute to documenting the history of this wonderful event!

Please also feel free to leave a comment about your bonfire memories!

Before Sandy, there was Gloria and David: Hurricane damage on campus.

As many are still recovering from Hurricane Sandy here at Princeton and throughout the east coast we take a look at how the University survived past super storms and hurricanes.

Within the Princeton University Archives and the Office of Communications Records (AC168) we found a number of photos from Hurricane David ,which unleashed its fury on campus on September 8, 1979. These photos were taken the following day.

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Ten years later, Hurricane Gloria caused damage yet again. These photos are dated September 27th 1989.

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For more information about the archives search our Finding Aids here.

The following article offers information if you would like to help with relief efforts.

Hurricane relief efforts being organized at Princeton

 

 

 

Editing the world’s online encyclopedia: Wikipedia Edit-a-Thon Three

On October 19th, 2012 staff members of Mudd Manuscript Library once again opened the doors and archives for the purpose of composing and  editing Princeton University-related articles on Wikipedia.

For this third event of its kind, we decided to hold it during our normal business hours during volunteer weekend with the focus of enhancing Princeton athletics information.

We had a total of 11 attendees with 3 new user names created.

Here a new user learns how to create and edit articles from a Wikipedian

A number of articles were created and are still being edited.

  1. Princeton Cannon Song
  2. Class of 1952 Stadium
  3. User:Undead q/Karl Langlotz
  4. List of Princeton University Olympians
  5. Hollie Donan
  6. User:Lmd08/sandbox (Princeton Tiger Mascot)
In addition a number of articles were expanded.
  1. Lisa Brown-Miller Coaching details added
  2. The Princeton Tigers page gained the addition of:
  • Women’s Golf
  • Golf
  • First football game

Two photos from the editing were also added to Wikimedia Commons

We count this edit-a-thon as yet another success and plans are being made for future events that will include undergraduates in learning more about Wikipedia and editing.

Princeton Alumni Weekly writer Brett Tomlinson was a participant in our event and has also written here about his experience.

MYTHBUSTER — “I Love Lucy” and a lost Presidential election?!

Is there any truth to the story that a commercial for Adlai Stevenson’s campaign interrupted an episode of “I Love Lucy” and cost him the 1952 election?

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This story has appeared in various books and articles, but none has a verifiable citation.
For example, in the book “Lucy A to Z: The Lucille Ball Encyclopedia” author Michael Karol asks the question “Is it possible the Democrats lost an election because of the (viewers) dedication? He writes that a Canadian website states that the Stevenson campaign was bombarded with hate mail when it bought a half hour campaign ad that preempted the popular show (p. 277). Another variation of the story has Stevenson receiving a telegram from a disgruntled Lucy fan that read: “I love Lucy, but I hate you.”

However, no Stevenson biography mentions this incident, nor is there any reportage of it in newspapers at the time. A search within the Adai Stevenson Papers held at Mudd Manuscript Library contains records documenting his 1952 radio and TV commercial purchases. They reveal that Stevenson’s campaign ran four types of ads: 20-second spots, 30 minute spots, five minute condensations, and 15 minute condensations. Presumably the condensations were reduced versions of the 30 minute spots. The evidence of this is found in multiple documents but the most succinct summary is in an undated telegram from Jay Sheridan to G. Rudiak found in Box 244, Folder 8. But the real stake in the heart for this myth is a listing of the campaigns media purchases for Fall 1952. While it shows a number of CBS-TV purchases on Monday nights, none were near the 8 p.m. time slot when “I Love Lucy” aired.

Given the lack of contemporary evidence (all the stories about the telegram date from well past the end of the campaign), and that the nature of the story fits with a common pattern in urban myths (smart guy gets his comeuppance for being ignorant about something commonly understood), we declare:

MYTH-BUSTED!!

Access to Higher Education: A National and Princeton Timeline

In light of the Trustees Ad Hoc Committee on Diversity that is working to develop recommendations for strategies to attract and retain more diverse campus community members, (including people of color and women, in areas where the University’s efforts to advance diversity have had more limited success), we offer this historical timeline.

The mid to late 19th century sees the first wave of democratization of collegiate education, including creation of the land grant universities, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), women’s colleges, and early coeducation.

1837: Cheyney University of Pennsylvania founded as the nation’s first HBCU.  In the same year, Mount Holyoke College opened, making it the oldest remaining higher education institution for women.

1856: The African Methodist Episcopal church founded Wilberforce University, which is the first black school of higher learning that was owned and operated by African Americans. Records suggest that Mt. Pisgah A.M.E. church in Princeton, NJ, was involved in fundraising efforts for Wilberforce.

1862: The Morrill Land Grant Act authorizes states to use the proceeds from the sale of public lands to establish state colleges of agriculture and the mechanical arts.

1865: The Freedman Bureau—initially known as the Federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedman and Abandoned Lands—was created. The bureau  was instrumental in founding a number of HBCU’s  in 1867, including, Howard University in Washington, D.C., Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, St. Augustine College in Raleigh, North Carolina, Atlanta University in Georgia, and in 1868, Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia.

1876: Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, opens the first medical school in the South for African Americans.

1881: Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, became the first college formally founded for African American women. In the same year, Booker T. Washington founded The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama, now known as Tuskegee University.

By the early 20th century, higher education leaders assume roles as “social regulators” between socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups, rationing access to undergraduate degrees. 

1900: A consortium of colleges and universities develops the Common Entrance Exam, which will evolve in 1926 into the SAT.

1909: Woodrow Wilson protects Princeton’s racial homogeneity, writing that it would be “altogether inadvisable for a colored man to enter.”

1922:  Princeton changes undergraduate admissions procedures to include greater consideration of subjective non-academic criteria, largely in order to limit admission of Jewish applicants.

Mid-century, there is renewed national movement toward democratization of access to higher education.

1942: Princeton belatedly admits its first African American undergraduates in conjunction with the Navy’s V-12 program. This federal government program was designed to select and train highly qualified men for commissioning as officers in the Navy.

1944: Congress passes the GI Bill of Rights, which provides WWII veterans with benefits including education grants. This year also marked the establishment of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) by Frederick D. Patterson, for which was organized to help support African American college students. At Princeton, John Leroy Howard is the first to graduate from the Navy’s V-12 program.

1948: James Everett Ward and Arthur Jewell Wilson, Jr. both admitted to the Navy’s V-12 Program in 1945 graduate from Princeton.  On August 24th, Princeton issued a statement to the Judiciary Committee on the Assembly of the State Legislature in response to the Proposed Act Assembly 512, legislation that challenged discriminatory practices in institutions of higher learning in NJ: “It is, however, the position of Princeton University that discriminatory practices in a private educational institutions cannot be corrected, in any fundamental or long-range manner, by police legislation. The only sound prescription for their eradication is to provide a climate in which they cannot thrive. No punitive law can create such a climate.”

1951: Princeton University conferred the Doctor of Laws honorary degree upon activist, intellectual, and politician Ralph Johnson Bunch, making him the first African American to receive such an honor from the college. In addition, Joseph Ralph Moss was the first African American admitted after the war in the fall of 1947. He graduated on June 12, 1951.

1954: Brown v. Board of Education decision holds that racially segregated schools are inherently unequal.

1955: Princeton appoints its first African American professor, Charles T. Davis.

1957: The “Little Rock Nine” integrates Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas.

1958: In response to the Cold War, Congress authorizes the National Defense Education Act, which provides federal aid to improve the teaching of math, science and foreign languages and creates the first federal loans for higher education.

1959: Princeton University conferred the Doctor of Humanities honorary degree upon opera singer Marian Anderson, making her the first African American woman to receive such an honor from the college.

1960: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was formed by an interracial group of college students. SNCC was instrumental in helping to energize college students and encouraged their involvement in the Civil Rights movement, particularly sit-ins and freedom rides.

1962: James Meredith was the first African American student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

1963: The Princeton Cooperative School-College program was established, aiming to “enlarge the pool of qualified Negro candidates for higher education.” It later sought to include students from other socio-economically disadvantaged groups from area public and private schools.

1964: Princeton awards a Ph.D degree to a woman, T’sai-ying Cheng, for the first time.  In the same year, Princeton ends compulsory chapel for freshmen.

By the mid-1960s, access to higher education is increasingly viewed as a social justice imperative and corrective “Affirmative Action” measure for under-represented populations.  Major federal legislation expands protections for a variety of populations. Private colleges and universities begin to redefine their role as the educators of societal leaders to include women and members of minority groups in the leadership cadre.

1965: The Higher Education Act increases federal funds for colleges and universities, creates scholarships, and provides low-interest loans for students.

1968: Carl A. Fields is appointed as assistant dean of the college, becoming the first African American to serve as dean at an Ivy League institution.  In the same year, Suzanne Keller becomes the first tenured female member of the faculty and Henry and Cecelia Drewry were hired to teach Princeton’s first courses in black history and culture. In October and November, the Committee for Black Awareness submitted proposals pertaining to improving the recruitment efforts, admission and experience of African American graduate students at the college.

1969: Princeton trustees vote to admit women to the undergraduate student body.  In this same year, the Ford foundation donated $1 million dollars to Howard University, Yale, and Morgan State University to help prepare faculty members to teach African American studies courses.

1971: Third World Center (now Carl A. Fields Center) and Women’s Center founded. This same year, Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg (1971) made the busing of students for the purpose of promoting integration in public schools constitutional. This case was suggestive of how the nation was still grappling with the implementation of the Brown v. Board of Education decision.

1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination on the basis of gender.

1974: A group of Princeton’s Puerto Rican and Chicano students, which included Sonia Sotomayor, petitioned the Office of Health, Education, and Welfare to review the college’s Affirmative Action policy, particularly, what the students charged were Princeton’s deficiencies in addressing the concerns of Puerto Rican and Chicano students. Thereafter, Sotomayor went on to propose the first student initiated seminar on the history and politics of Puerto-Rico to be administered in the spring of 1974.

1973: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act guarantees civil rights for people with disabilities in the context of federally-funded institutions.

1978: Regents of the University of California v. Bakke decision condemns use of quotas in college admission but concludes that it is permissible to take race into account, as one among several factors, in seeking to secure the educational benefits of diversity.  Justice Powell’s decision quotes President William Bowen’s writing on the value of diversity.

During the 1980s and 1990s, definitions of diversity in a higher education context broaden to include a wider range of difference in experience and background, including disabilities, religion, socio-economic class, sexual orientation, national origin, etc.  Workplace conceptions of diversity as a form of competitive advantage, particularly in a globalized world, enter the national dialogue.

1992: Tiger Inn becomes the last Eating Club to accept women.

1993: On March 1st, Vice Provost Ruth Simmons issues “Report on Campus Race Relations.”

1994: Center for Jewish Life established.

1995: Ethnic studies protest waged by students at Princeton culminated with a sit-in at Nassau Hall. The students were calling for a more diverse liberal arts curriculum that would include Asian and Latin American studies.

1998: Princeton takes first major steps to transform its financial aid policies, followed in 2001 by the ground-breaking “no-loan” policy.

2002: Princeton’s Office of the Vice President for Campus Life launched the Bildner Fund for the Advancement of Diversity on Campus. These funds were used to support programming and projects dealing with race, ethnicity, gender, faith, class, social justice, among others issues.

2003: Supreme Court upholds the affirmative action policies of the University of Michigan in Grutter v. Bollinger.

2005: Princeton launches the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Center.

2006: Princeton launches the Office of Disabilities Services.

2007: Princeton announces a strategic plan to expand its international initiatives. In addition, the Center for African American Studies (CAAS) opens in Stanhope Hall.

2009: Princeton hires the country’s first full-time college Hindu Chaplain. Also, the program in Latino Studies is established during this year.

2011: Princeton’s Program in Women and Gender Studies changed its name to the Program in Gender and Sexuality Studies to “reflect the new development and changing focus of scholarship in the field.”

American Civil Liberties Union Records Processing Completed

The Mudd Library is pleased to announce that the final two series of the third subgroup of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) records have been processed, and that the entire collection has been addressed is now available to the public. These materials join ACLU records long held at the Mudd Library: The Roger Baldwin Years, 1917–1950 and American Civil Liberties Union Records 1947–1995. As a whole, this collection documents the civil liberties organization’s work in areas including civil rights, children and women’s rights, freedom of speech (and all First Amendment questions), due process, the right to privacy, and church-state separation issues, and this third subgroup covers the years between 1975 and 2000 predominantly. The records are of vital historical and cultural importance to the nation, and we are grateful that the work on these records was supported by a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC).

Founded in 1920, the ACLU’s mission is “to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.” The group has been integral in myriad landmark court cases since its inception, and the collection of new materials housed at Mudd consists, notably, of records from the Reproductive Freedom Project, the Women’s Rights Project, the Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination hearings, the Iran-Contra affair, and Texas v. Johnson (the 1990 flag-burning case). The newly available records also include over 300 boxes from the ACLU’s Southern Regional office, which handled many important civil rights cases

Adriane Hanson, who managed the processing of the new ACLU materials, began in June 2010, and with the help of several Princeton students, she inventoried and processed 2,500 linear, the single largest and fastest processing project in Mudd Library’s history. Mudd Library’s entire ACLU collection, which is its largest and most used, now spans about 4,200 linear feet.

For more information, read the Princeton Alumni Weekly’s article on these new records.

Oldest Living Princeton Undergraduate Dies

Malcolm Warnock, the oldest known living Princeton undergraduate alumnus of all time, has passed away at the age of 107. Malcolm Roe Warnock was a part of the Class of 1925.

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Malcom Warnock at Reunions 2008.
Photo Courtesy Princeton Alumni Weekly

The unofficial distinguished title of the Oldest Princeton Undergraduate was designated to Mr. Warnock after a search of the index of PAW Memorials published between 1894 and 2012 for undergraduate alumni who died 80 or more years after graduation.
The following list shows other than Mr. Warnock, the ten oldest Princetonians:
Steven Hirsch ’1917, who died in 2000 at the age of 105
Leonard L. Ernst ’1925 ,who died in 2008 at the age of 103.
Elijah V. Gordy ’1912, who died in 1993 at the age of 103

Arthur Cort Holden ’1912, who died in 1993 at the age of 103

Robert R. Lester ’1916, who died in 1997 at the age of 103

Harold R. Medina ’1909, who died in 1990 at the age of 102. (Medina’s Papers are housed at Mudd Manuscript Library.)

Alison Reid Bryan ’1913, who died in 1992 at the age of 101

George E. Strebel ’1914, who died in 1995 at the age of 101

Carl Bischoff ’1916, who died in 1991 at the age of 100

Charles “Cupid” E. Whitehouse Jr. ’1915 , who died 1995 at the age of 100

Walton Clark Jr. ’1908, who died in 1987 at the age of 99

Carl F. Hinrichsen ’1907, who died in 1985 at the age of 97

While a student at Princeton, Warnock was listed as a member of the Key and Seal Club.

In addition to the honor of being the Oldest Princeton Undergraduate, Mr. Warnock was also the first person to return for his 87th Reunion, as well as having been given the 1923 Class cane a record number eight times in 2012.

Malcolm Warnock is survived by his two daughters, Margaret Carlough and Elanor Warnock.

Additional reporting by: Christie Peterson

Fidel Castro visits Princeton University

Daily Princetonian photo of Castro on Washington Street.

In 1959, not even three months after he came to power, Fidel Castro was invited to speak to a small group of undergraduate students and faculty members of the Woodrow Wilson School. In a recent donation to the University Archives, we received some key items related to Castro’s visit, including this letter of invitation.

Letter sent to Castro. March 5, 1959

This telegram response to the initial letter is also part of the donation, which was added to the American Whig-Cliosophic Society Records.

Ultimately, Castro did accept the invitation and spoke for the Woodrow Wilson School’s Special Program in American Civilization. Admission to the program was by invitation only, and it was held in Wilson Hall, now known as Corwin Hall.

These materials were donated by Ambassador Paul D. Taylor ’60 and include a carbon copy of three pages of notes of excerpts from Castro’s speech taken by Taylor.

The rest of Castro’s visit included a tour of campus with President Goheen ’40 as well as being the guest of honor at the Present Day Club in town.

During his visit, Castro stayed in the home of Mr. & Mrs. Roland T. Ely ’46. Below is a piece of biographical information that is included in the Historical Subject Files: Box 309, Folder 20.

If you would like to learn more about Castro’s visit, please search the digitized archives of The Daily Princetonian.

The following links are just two of the articles related to Castro’s visit.

Castro Violates Security Regulations

The Story Behind Castro’s Visit

There is also this piece in the Princeton Alumni Weekly online edition.

The Mudd Manuscript Library Hosts its Third Edit-a-thon on October 19

In the spirit of volunteerism, the Mudd Manuscript Library will host its third Wikipedia edit-a-thon on Friday, October 19th from 12:30-4:15 p.m. during Volunteer Weekend at Princeton University.  This edit-a-thon will provide a unique, hands-on experience with University Archives collections and its focus will be on expanding and/or creating Wikipedia pages on Princeton athletics.

Students and community members with all levels of experience (including none!) are welcome to participate in this event.  Instructions for editing and contributing to Wikipedia will be provided, along with lunch and snacks. Full details of the event are available on our meetup page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Meetup/Princeton_University_Edit-a-thon_Three

We ask that you bring a laptop to work on, and, since space is limited, please RSVP to mudd@princeton.edu.

View posts on our previous edit-a-thons:

http://blogs.princeton.edu/mudd/2012/05/she-roars-we-record/

http://blogs.princeton.edu/mudd/2012/02/wikipedia-edit-a-thon-at-mudd-library/

Please direct questions to mudd@princeton.edu

 

 

Senior Theses to Go Digital in 2013

Access to the most frequently used collection at the Mudd Manuscript Library—the Senior Thesis Collection—will be greatly enhanced in 2013 as we transition from collecting paper copies to electronic copies (PDFs) of theses.  Dean of the College Valerie Smith has approved a plan for senior theses to be available online (but limited to the Princeton University community) through Princeton’s digital repository, DataSpace.

To this end, next summer DataSpace will become the main search interface for all theses.  Senior theses submitted in 2013 and in the future will be available only electronically (but limited to the Princeton University domain), while senior theses submitted in 2012 and before will be available in paper format at the Mudd Manuscript Library, as they are today.  In the second phase of the project, PDFs of legacy senior theses will be added to DataSpace as they are scanned for patrons, which will incrementally grow the number of theses available digitally.

“The senior thesis has a long history at Princeton,” said University Archivist Dan Linke. “This is just the next chapter for this important aspect of a Princeton education.”

The submission process for academic departments will evolve as we move to PDFs—all of the data entry and uploading will be done through a simple online form. Staff in the academic departments will do the initial data entry and uploading, and Library staff will make a final check and then release the theses to DataSpace. Training on the new process will be offered in the winter of 2013 and will include online videos as well as in-person demonstrations at the Mudd Manuscript Library.

Questions about the new process can be directed to the University Archivist, Dan Linke (609.258.5879; mudd@princeton.edu).