This Week in Princeton History for September 1-7

For last week’s installment in our ongoing series bringing you the history of Princeton University and its students and alumni, click here.

For the week of September 1-7:

The Princeton Bulletin marvels at the novelty of getting Labor Day off, a student competes in the Miss America pageant, and more.

September 1, 2010—The Carl A. Fields Papers are made available to researchers at Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Fields was the first African American to hold a high-ranking position at an Ivy League school.

LoBiondo.Carl Fields

Carl A. Fields (1938-2009)

September 4, 1944—The Princeton Bulletin refers to the suspension of classes on this date for Labor Day as “one of those rare occurrences like Halley’s Comet, or the 17-year locusts or a total eclipse of the sun.”

September 5, 1843—The U.S.S. Princeton is launched in Philadelphia.

U.S.S. Princeton

Photo from Daily Princetonian.

September 6, 1999—Princeton junior Victoria Paige ’01 competes in the Miss America pageant, earning a spot in the top 10.

Victoria_Paige_01

Victoria A. Paige’s Nassau Herald photo (2001).

Fact check: We always strive for accuracy, but if you believe you see an error, please contact us.

This Week in Princeton History for August 25-31

Here at the Princeton University Archives we love to bring the history of the school, students and alumni to life by sharing what happened “This Week in Princeton History,” which will be an ongoing series here on our blog.

For the week of August 25-31:

Nassau Hall hosts the first legislature of New Jersey, an alumnus sets a new record, Princeton undergraduates keep the Pennsylvania Railroad running, and more.

August 27, 1776—The first legislature of New Jersey meets in the College library in Nassau Hall.

AC177_Box_2_Folder_5(Nassau)

Nassau Hall Iconography Collection, AC177, Box 2, Folder 5.

August 28, 1982—Preparatory school headmaster Ashby “Brud” Harper ’39, winner of the 9 varsity P’s, becomes the oldest person to swim the English Channel at 65 years old.

August 28-29, 1943—100 Princeton undergraduates are excused from classes to volunteer handling freight at the Olden Avenue Yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad in Trenton.

August 29, 1804—For promotion of science, Noah Webster deeds to Nassau Hall royalties from some of his publications: American Spelling Book, American Selections, and Elements of Useful Knowledge.

August 31, 1952—Town Topics names then-Assistant Dean of the College Jeremiah Stanton Finch their “man of the week,” noting his commitment to making a Princeton education “as close as possible to the ideal.”

Jeremiah_S._Finch_Bric-a-Brac_1958

Photo from 1958 Bric-a-Brac.

Fact Check: We aim for accuracy, but, if you see something that doesn’t look right, contact us!

When did people start referring to the College of New Jersey as Princeton?

Dear Mr. Mudd:

Q: From your FAQ website: “In 1896, when expanded program offerings brought the College university status, the College of New Jersey was officially renamed Princeton University in honor of its host community of Princeton.”

I am currently editing a novel that includes both Nassau Hall and Princeton; would the use of “Princeton” be anachronistic in 1818? Or was “Princeton” used informally, much as “Augusta” in reference to that city’s Masters Tournament?

Princeton College

A: While the college was informally called Princeton before its official name change in 1896, the earliest reference in that form that we have here in the University Archives dates from 1853 (within a publication entitled “College As It Is”). Our sources before 1853 are scanty, due to a paucity of things created (no student newspaper yet, no yearbooks, etc.). However, your question piqued my interest and so I did a search of the America’s Historical Newspapers database and found frequent references to “Princeton College” or “Princeton college” starting in 1772. For fun, I have attached a photo (above) of that first article from a Philadelphia newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet [page 1, issue 43, Publication Date: August 17, 1772].

Update, May 29, 2014: Additional research into this revealed that an October 18, 1756 newspaper ad used the phrase “Prince-town college.” This is notable not only for its earlier date, but also that this was about five weeks before the college actually started operations in Princeton (November 28, 1756). According to Princeton, 1746-1896, by Thomas J. Wertenbaker, it was during fall break that the college moved from Newark to Princeton, “although carpenters and plasterers were still working in Nassau Hall when the session began” (p.40). So it can be safely said that the institution was known as Princeton from the very start of its time in the town of Princeton.

New-York Mercury, page 4, iss. 219; October 18, 1756

New-York Mercury, page 4, issue 219; October 18, 1756

Mudd in Print

Have you ever wondered what our researchers are up to in the reading room? Many of them are working fervently towards producing highly esteemed, ground-breaking, and sometimes award-winning books.

This entry features a sample of recent publications, each developed through extensive research at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Drawing from material found in the Princeton University Archives, as well as the Public Policy Papers, these works demonstrate the varied research potential of the collections housed in our library. (All descriptions from Amazon.com.)

Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities by Craig Steven Wilder

Ebony and Ivy

In Ebony and Ivy, Craig Steven Wilder, a rising star in the profession of history, lays bare uncomfortable truths about race, slavery, and the American academy.

The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War by Stephen Kinzer

TheBrothers
A joint biography of John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles, who led the United States into an unseen war that decisively shaped today’s world.

Wilson by A. Scott Berg

Wilson

From Pulitzer Prize–winning, #1 New York Times–bestselling author A. Scott Berg comes the definitive—and revelatory—biography of one of the great American figures of modern times.

George F. Kennan: An American Life by John Lewis Gaddis

kennan

Three decades in the making, the definitive, authorized biography of one of Cold War America’s most prominent and most troubled grand strategists.

Princeton: America’s Campus by W. Barksdale Maynard

americascampus

Neither a straightforward architectural history nor a simple guidebook, it weaves social history and the built fabric into a biography of a great American place.

These books are also on display in the lobby case at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library.

by: Amanda Pike

 

 

Princeton’s African American Honorary Degree Recipients: Activists and Public Servants

by: Brenda Tindal

In the fall of 1748, Princeton University–then known as the College of New Jersey– held its first commencement. During this ceremony, six undergraduate students were graduated with Bachelor of Arts degrees and the administration conferred the honoris causa (honorary degree) upon Jonathan Belcher, the Governor of New Jersey. Thereafter, Princeton awarded honorary degrees to individuals who had made significant contributions in various sectors of society including religion, academics, arts and culture, politics, science, military, and finance, among other fields. However, it would not be until 1951 that Princeton would confer this honor upon an African American. Since then, more than forty African Americans have been honored in this way. This post focuses on some African American activists and public servants who have received an honorary degree from Princeton University.

Ralph Johnson Bunche

Diplomat and scholar-activist Ralph Johnson Bunche was the first African American awarded an honorary degree from Princeton in 1951, receiving a Doctor of Laws degree.


Citation read at Princeton’s 204th Commencement:
"A political scientist on the faculty of Howard University on leave since 1941 for government service. Stafford Little Lecturer at Princeton in 1950. Professor-designate at Harvard. An expert analyst of colonial areas and territorial affairs for the State Department and advisor to the United States Delegation at the several Conferences that initiated the United Nations. Now on loan from the State Department to be Director of the Department of Trusteeship in the United Nations. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1950 as United Nations mediator in Palestine. Where human affairs need a knowing appraisal and statesmanlike leadership, people draft him because he can be believed. His singleness of purpose brings people to the point of reconciliation, and his sincerity and simplicity inspire in them confident hope. A world citizen ‘ever willing to accept as great a share of hazard as of honor.’ "

Thurgood Marshall

Judge and civil rights litigator Thurgood Marshall received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1963.

ThurgoodMarshall_hdpic

Citation read at Princeton’s 206th Commencement:

ThurgoodMarshall_hdcit

Whitney Moore Young, Jr.

Leader of the National Urban League and civil rights activist Whitney Moore Young, Jr., received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1967.

WhitneyYoung_hdpic

Citation read at Princeton’s 220th Commencement:

WhitneyYoung_hdcit

Coretta Scott King

Human rights activist and widow of slain Civil Rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta Scott King received the honorary degree of Doctor of Humanities in 1970.

CorettaScott_hdpic

Citation read at Princeton’s 223rd Commencement:

CSKing_hdcit

John Lewis

Congressman and civil rights leader John Lewis received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1987.
Citation read at Princeton 240th Commencement:
JohnLewis_hdcit
Constance Baker Motley

Judge and civil rights litigator Constance Baker-Motley received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1989.

Citation read at Princeton’s 242nd Commencement:

ConstanceMotley_hdcit

Dorothy Irene Height

Civic leader, activist, and educator Dorothy Irene Height received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1990.
Citation read at Princeton’s 243rd Commencement:

DorothyHeight_hdcit

Robert Parris Moses

Educator and civil rights pioneer Robert Parris Moses received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 2002.
*Moses is currently the 2011-2012 Visiting Fellow in Princeton’s Center for African American Studies (CAAS)
Citation read at Princeton’s 257th Commencement:

RobertMoses_hdcit

University Archives materials in new Art Museum exhibition

A new exhibition at the Princeton University Art Museum features items borrowed from the Princeton University Archives. Princeton and the Gothic Revival: 1870-1930 is a look into "Americans’ changing attitudes to the art, architecture, and style of the Middle Ages through the lens of Princeton University around the turn of the twentieth century" and opens to the public this Saturday, February 25, 2012.

Chapel exterior
Alexander Hoyle for Cram and Ferguson, architects

The exhibit includes 10 items loaned from the Princeton University Archives, including the signature image for the exhibition, a watercolor of the University Chapel (above). Other items include architectural drawings of the Marquand Chapel, Holder Hall, Madison Hall and the South Court Tower, and some suggested additions for the university library from 1898, which at that time was housed in Chancellor Green.

One piece needed some intricate and delicate conservation efforts from University Paper Conservator Ted Stanley. A watercolor of the proposed exterior of the A. Page Brown, Class of 1877 Biological Laboratory had split in half. Stanley was able to restore the watercolor and the board it was mounted on to its original form to hide the separation. We challenge you to find the seam!

This is the first time that any of the archives material has been loaned and displayed at the Princeton Art Museum. The exhibit will run from February 25th to June 24, 2012

For more about Princeton and the Gothic Revival: 1870-1930 or the Princeton Art Museum, visit their website.

The beginnings of American Football

Superbowl Sunday is once again upon us. As we head toward the “Big Game” you can’t help but think back to when intercollegiate football gained its beginnings right here in Princeton.

In the book A Princeton Companion author Alexander Leitch notes that the first American intercollegiate football game was played between Princeton and Rutgers in New Brunswick on November 6, 1869.

The Princeton University Archives, housed at Mudd Manuscript Library, contains a treasure trove of memorabilia, photographs and programs from the early days of Princeton football.

AC112_SP10

Princeton football team from 1879.
A Souvenir Programme from the Princeton-Pennsylvania Foot-Ball Game from November 5, 1892 gives a description of the game. See the transcript below.

AC042_B1_F1

“Our Game of Foot-Ball” from a Souvenir Programme dated November 5, 1892.

Transcript:
Our Game of Foot-Ball.

It is proper to call it our game,for the reason that Foot-ball, as you will see it played to-day, is peculiarly an institution of American Colleges. From the time, however, that man’s constructive genius evolved a large but airly light sphere, he has delighted to kick and chase it about in rivalry with his fellows. Therefore, Foot-ball, as a game, is not ours either in the sense of American or modern. We read of games in the Middle Ages, in which hundreds of men participated, and the bounds of which were miles apart. Who has not laughed at the description, in “Tom Brown’s School-days,” of the game into which the silk-hatted, gold spectacled graduates rushed-forgetful of dignity and clothing-remembering only the glory of their school and the intoxicating delight of the game. Show me the boy or man even – indeed I will add old woman – who can see a foot-ball rolling temptingly near the foot and yet feel no desire to kick it, and I would advise the consulting of some sensible physician. But it would be well to speak only of our game. Among the spectators there is undoubtedly a large minority who know actually nothing about the technique of “Inter-Collegiate” Foot-ball. Probably half of the remainder know just enough to arouse their curiosity, and many of the other half feel that they do not know it all. Hence it does not seem untimely to describe the game in such a way that any, so desiring, may, by careful reading, know and enjoy Foot-Ball better.

THE GROUNDS
You will see, spread out before you, a field enclosed by white bouandry lines. Its length is 330 feet — its breadth 160 feet. Width-wise across this field you will see other white lines, drawn parallet and exactly five yards apart. Three of these “five-yard” lines are marked more heavily than the others. These are twenty-five yards from each end and the one in the centre of the field. The end lines are called the “goal-lines.” In the centre fo the lines you will see two posts twenty feet high, eighteen feet and six inches apart and connected ten feet from the ground by a straight bar. This-H like structure is called the goal.

THE TEAMS
If you are properly enthused, you will experience considerable excitement when the teams come on the field about two-fifteen. Until the game is called there will be about twenty men at each end of the field, warming up by passing the ball, falling on it and kicking it. When it is time to play, however, eleven only of each side strip off their sweaters and assemble at the middle of the field. The conventional method for these men to line up on ordinary plays is as follows: Seven of them, called “Rushers,” stand in line to protect he “Backs,” who are the other four men. Of the Rushers, the man in the middle is known as the Centre Rush, and is the man to put the ball in play. On each side of him are the Guards – the one on his right being known as Right Guard, the other as Left Guard. The next man on each side is known as a Tackle, and the end men are known respectively as Right and Left End Rush. Of the Backs, the man who plays directly behind the Centre Rush and takes the ball from him when he snaps it back is know as the Quarter Back. The other three backs stand in a line about five yards from the Rushers and are know respectively as Right and Left Half Backs and Full Back.

THE OFFICIALS
Consist of a Referee and an Umpire. The principal duty of the former is to watch the ball – tell to which side it belongs, how many downs it is, how far to gain, and whether the ball has been properly put into play. The Umpire must watch the players – keep them on side, prevent unfair holding, decide with regard to the fairness of interference and prevent brutality by sending from the field all men who strike, kick, throttle or are unnecessarily rough.

THE GAME
When it is nearly time for the game to begin, the Referee calls the two Captains together and, by flipping a coin, determine which team shall have the ball at the kick-off. The Captain who does not get the ball always has a choice of the goals, and usually chooses to defend the one from which the wind is blowing, so that the kicking may be more effective. The Referee now placed the ball in the exact centre of the field, and the team having the kick-off forms itself into the shape of a V, with the apex over the ball and a man standing in the angle to run with it behind the protection of his V. The Referee asks each Captain if he is ready and then shouts, “Play!” The game is now begun and continues an hour and a half, with a rest of ten minutes in the middle.

Above items were found in collections:

In addition, you can see film highlights of Princeton football games on our Reel Mudd blog.

Early films of Princeton football, 1903-1951.
Post-war Princeton football newsreels, 1947-1956.
Princeton Football, the Winning Way,” 1975.

For more information about Princeton Football and the University Archives visit the finding aids page of the Mudd Manuscript Library website.

Additional reading Princeton Football: Images of Sports available at Firestone and Mudd Libraries.

New Accessions: April-June 2010

The Mudd Manuscript Library received 12 public policy accessions and 30 University Archives accessions between April and June 2010.

The public policy collections received significant additions to the American Civil Liberties Union Records and the Council on Foreign Relations Records. In addition, a wonderful surprise was the receipt of Woodrow Wilson’s and Edith Bolling Galt’s marriage license, 1915. The item was donated by Mr. Barry C. Keenan of Granville, OH, who also confessed to having caused the green ink stain on the document as a ten-year-old.

Wilson marriage license

On the University Archives side, the Library received the papers of two important Princeton figures– Dr. Carl. A. Fields and Dean Mathey.
Educator and advocate of minority education, Dr. Carl A. Fields was assistant dean of student aid at Princeton University and later served in various other leadership positions outside the University. The Carl A. Fields Papers consist of correspondence, reports, research material on race relations and minority education, handwritten notes, project proposals, and other papers that document his life and active career. An online finding aid for this collection is available at: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/5138jd936.
Dean Mathey, Class of 1912, was a member of the Board of Trustees and an ardent supporter of the University. The collection documents Mathey’s familial relationships, his service to Princeton, his tennis career and other activities from his undergraduate days to the end of his life. A finding aid is for this collection is in process.
The following is a complete list of materials that were accessioned between April and June of 2010. As always, if you would like additional information about these materials, please contact us through our general email account at mudd@princeton.edu.

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From the Archives: Summer at Princeton

With most students away and the heat beating down on McCosh Walk, summer at Princeton has an undeniably different character than that of the academic year.
Unlike Ivy League counterparts such as Columbia and Harvard, Princeton does not hold summer classes. Instead, the campus is populated by a variety of summer camps, conferences, and other special programs. The small cadre of students who remain on campus are often at work on dissertations and theses or employed in summer jobs on behalf of various university departments. Meanwhile, faculty who remain may be preparing material for publication or undertaking research.
But this was not always the case. From 1923 to at least the 1940s, Princeton hosted its own summer courses, and students have returned to campus in droves during times of national emergency as well, such as during World War I, when Princeton hosted military training camps, or World War II, when the summer session was greatly expanded so students could complete more courses before going off to serve in the war.

WWIweb

World War I Summer Training Camp — Review (1917). Historical Photograph Collection: Campus Life Series, Box MP207

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From the Archives: Princeton and the Supreme Court

Journalists and pundits are noting that Elena Kagan’s

confirmation to the Supreme Court last week marks the first time three women have served concurrently on

the high court. However, Kagan’s confirmation marks another historic

occasion — the first time in 168 years that three Princetonians have shared

the bench.

While 2010′s trio consists of Samuel Alito ‘ 72, Sonia

Sotomayor ’76, and Elena Kagan ’81, the 1842 trio consisted of Smith Thompson

’1788, Peter V. Daniel ’1805, and James Moore Wayne ’1808.

justices1842_web

Justices Thompson

’1788 (Undergraduate Alumni Records), Daniel ’1805 (Dickinson University’s House Divided Project), and Wayne ’1808 (Library of Congress).

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