Tag Archives: bacteria

Unlocking the potential of bacterial gene clusters to discover new antibiotics (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.)

High-throughput screening for the discovery of small molecules that activate silent bacterial gene clusters

High-throughput screening for the discovery of small molecules that activate silent bacterial gene clusters. Image courtesy of Mohammad Seyedsayamdost.

by Tien Nguyen, Department of Chemistry

Resistance to antibiotics has been steadily rising and poses a serious threat to the stronghold of existing treatments. Now, a method from Mohammad Seyedsayamdost, an assistant professor of chemistry at Princeton University, may open the door to the discovery of a host of potential drug candidates.

The vast majority of anti-infectives on the market today are bacterial natural products, made by biosynthetic gene clusters. Genome sequencing of bacteria has revealed that these active gene clusters are outnumbered approximately ten times by so-called silent gene clusters.

“Turning these clusters on would really expand our available chemical space to search for new antibiotic or otherwise therapeutically useful molecules,” Seyedsayamdost said.

In an article published last week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Seyedsayamdost reported a strategy to quickly screen whole libraries of compounds to find elicitors, small molecules that can turn on a specific gene cluster. He used a genetic reporter that fluoresces or generates a color when the gene cluster is activated to easily identify positive hits. Using this method, two silent gene clusters were successfully activated and a new metabolite was discovered.

Application of this work promises to uncover new bacterial natural products and provide insights into the regulatory networks that control silent gene clusters.

Read the abstract.

Seyedsayamdost, M. R. “High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2014, Early edition.

Why a bacterium got its curve — and why biologists should know (Nature Communications)

Art by Laura Ancona

Princeton University researchers found that the banana-like curve of the bacteria Caulobacter crescentus provides stability and helps them flourish as a group in the moving water they experience in nature. The findings suggest a new way of studying the evolution of bacteria that emphasizes using naturalistic settings. The illustration shows how C. crescentus divides asymmetrically into a “stalked” mother cell that anchors to a bacterium’s home surface, and an upper unattached portion that forms a new, juvenile cell known as a “swarmer.” Swarmer cells later morph into stalked cells and lay down roots nearby. They repeat the life cycle with their own swarmer cell and the bacterial colony grows. The Princeton researchers found that in moving water, curvature points the swarmer cell toward the surface to which it needs to attach. This ensures that the bacteria’s next generation does not stray too far from its progenitors. (Image by Laura Ancona)

By Morgan Kelly, Office of Communications

Drawing from his engineering background, Princeton University researcher Alexandre Persat had a notion as to why the bacteria Caulobacter crescentus are curved — a hunch that now could lead to a new way of studying the evolution of bacteria, according to research published in the journal Nature Communications.

Commonly used in labs to study cell division, C. crescentus naturally take on a banana-like curve, but they also can undergo a mutation in which they grow to be perfectly straight. The problem was that in a laboratory there was no apparent functional difference between the two shapes. So a question among biologists was, why would nature bother?

Then Persat, who is a postdoctoral researcher in the group of Associate Professor of Molecular Biology Zemer Gitai, considered that the bacteria dwell in large groups attached to surfaces in lakes, ponds and streams. That means that their curvature could be an adaptation that allows C. crescentus to better develop in the water currents the organisms experience in nature.

In the new paper, first author Persat, corresponding author Gitai and Howard Stone, Princeton’s Donald R. Dixon ’69 and Elizabeth W. Dixon Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, report that curvature does more than just help C. crescentus hold their ground in moving fluid. The researchers monitored C. crescentus growth on surfaces in flow and found that the bacteria’s arched anatomy is crucial to flourishing as a group.

“It didn’t take a long time to figure out how flow brought out the advantages of curvature,” Persat said. “The obvious thing to me as someone with a fluid-dynamics background was that this shape had something to do with fluid flow.”

The findings emphasize the need to study bacteria in a naturalistic setting, said Gitai, whose group focuses on how bacterial shapes are genetically determined. While a petri dish generally suffices for this line of study, the functionality of bacterial genes and anatomy can be elusive in most lab settings, he said. For instance, he said, 80 percent of the genes in C. crescentus are seemingly disposable — but they might not be in nature.

“We now see there can be benefits to bacterial shapes that are only seen in a growth environment that is close to the bacteria’s natural environment,” Gitai said.

“For C. crescentus, the ecology was telling us there is an advantage to being curved, but nothing we previously did in the lab could detect what that was,” he said. “We need to not only think of the chemical environment of the bacteria — we also need to think of the physical environment. I think of this research as opening a whole new axis of studying bacteria.”

While most bacteria grow and divide as two identical “daughter” cells, C. crescentus divides asymmetrically. A “stalked” mother cell anchors to a bacterium’s home surface while the upper unattached portion forms a new, juvenile version of the stalked cell known as a “swarmer” cell. The swarmer cells later morph into stalked cells then eventually detach before laying down roots nearby. They repeat the life cycle with their own swarmer cell and the bacterial colony grows.

The Princeton researchers found that in moving water, curvature points the swarmer cell toward the surface to which it needs to attach. This ensures that the bacteria’s next generation does not stray too far from its progenitors, as well as from the nutrients that prompted cell division in the first place, Gitai said. On the other hand, the upper cells of straight bacteria — which are comparatively higher from the ground — are more likely to be carried far away as they are to stay near home.

But the advantage of curvature only goes so far. The researchers found that when the water current was too strong, both curved and straight bacteria were pressed flat against the surface, eliminating the curved cells’ colonization advantage.

These findings put some interesting boundaries on what is known about C. crescentus, starting with the upper limits of the current in which the organism can thrive, Gitai said. He and Persat also plan to pursue whether the bacteria are able to straighten out and cast offspring downstream when the home colony faces a decline in available nutrients.

At the same time, understanding why C. crescentus got its curve helps in figuring out the evolution of other bacteria, he said. Close relatives of the bacteria, for example, are not curved — could it have to do with the severity of their natural environment, such as the powerful turbulence of an ocean? Harmful bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae, strains of which cause cholera, are curved, though the reason is unclear. It’s possible this shape could be related to the organism’s environment in a way that might help treat those infected by it, Gitai said.

Whatever the reason for a specific bacteria’s shape, the Princeton research shows that exploring the influence of its natural habitat could be worthwhile, Gitai said.

“It was clear with C. crescentus that we needed to try something different,” Gitai said. “People didn’t really think of flow as a major driver of this bacteria’s evolution. That really is a new idea.”

Read the article..

Persat, Alexandre, Howard A. Stone, Zemer Gitai. 2014. The curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus enhances surface colonization in flow. Nature Communications. Article published online May 8, 2014. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4824

The work was supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant no. GBMF 2550.02), the National Science Foundation (grant no. CBET-1234500), and the National Institutes of Health Director’s New Investigator Innovator Award (grant no. 1DP2OD004389).

How do bacteria clog medical devices? Very quickly. (PNAS)

stone-figure-2D_540A new study has examined how bacteria clog medical devices, and the result isn’t pretty. The microbes join to create slimy ribbons that tangle and trap other passing bacteria, creating a full blockage in a startlingly short period of time.

The finding could help shape strategies for preventing clogging of devices such as stents — which are implanted in the body to keep open blood vessels and passages — as well as water filters and other items that are susceptible to contamination. The research was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Click on the image to view movie. Over a period of about 40 hours, bacterial cells (green) flowed through a channel, forming a green biofilm on the walls. Over the next ten hours, researchers sent red bacterial cells through the channel. The red cells became stuck in the sticky biofilm and began to form thin red streamers. Once stuck, these streamers in turn trapped additional cells, leading to rapid clogging. (Image source: Knut Drescher)

Using time-lapse imaging, researchers at Princeton University monitored fluid flow in narrow tubes or pores similar to those used in water filters and medical devices. Unlike previous studies, the Princeton experiment more closely mimicked the natural features of the devices, using rough rather than smooth surfaces and pressure-driven fluid instead of non-moving fluid.

The team of biologists and engineers introduced a small number of bacteria known to be common contaminants of medical devices. Over a period of about 40 hours, the researchers observed that some of the microbes — dyed green for visibility — attached to the inner wall of the tube and began to multiply, eventually forming a slimy coating called a biofilm. These films consist of thousands of individual cells held together by a sort of biological glue.

Over the next several hours, the researchers sent additional microbes, dyed red, into the tube. These red cells became stuck to the biofilm-coated walls, where the force of the flowing liquid shaped the trapped cells into streamers that rippled in the liquid like flags rippling in a breeze. During this time, the fluid flow slowed only slightly.

At about 55 hours into the experiment, the biofilm streamers tangled with each other, forming a net-like barrier that trapped additional bacterial cells, creating a larger barrier which in turn ensnared more cells. Within an hour, the entire tube became blocked and the fluid flow stopped.

The study was conducted by lead author Knut Drescher with assistance from technician Yi Shen. Drescher is a postdoctoral research associate working with Bonnie Bassler, Princeton’s Squibb Professor in Molecular Biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and Howard Stone, Princeton’s Donald R. Dixon ’69 and Elizabeth W. Dixon Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

“For me the surprise was how quickly the biofilm streamers caused complete clogging,” said Stone. “There was no warning that something bad was about to happen.”

By constructing their own controlled environment, the researchers demonstrated that rough surfaces and pressure driven flow are characteristics of nature and need to be taken into account experimentally. The researchers used stents, soil-based filters and water filters to prove that the biofilm streams indeed form in real scenarios and likely explain why devices fail.

The work also allowed the researchers to explore which bacterial genes contribute to biofilm streamer formation. Previous studies, conducted under non-realistic conditions, identified several genes involved in formation of the biofilm streamers. The Princeton researchers found that some of those previously identified genes were not needed for biofilm streamer formation in the more realistic habitat.

Read the abstract.

Drescher, Knut, Yi Shen, Bonnie L. Bassler, and Howard A. Stone. 2013. Biofilm streamers cause catastrophic disruption of flow with consequences for environmental and medical systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Published online February 11.

This work was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical
Institute, National Institutes of Health grant 5R01GM065859, National Science Foundation (NSF) grant MCB-0343821, NSF grant MCB-1119232, and the Human Frontier Science Program.

Transition from individual to group behavior in bacteria (Journal of Bacteriology)

Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to control transitions between individual and group behaviors. In the bacteria known as Vibrio harveyi, two master “switches” of gene regulation, or transcription factors, coordinate the quorum-sensing response.The researchers found that one of the regulators, LuxR, acts as a sort of master switch that regulates quorum-sensing, while the other regulator, AphA, does the fine-tuning. Together the two regulators generate a precise pattern of activity as bacteria transition from acting as individuals to acting as a group.

Julia C. van Kessel, Steven T. Rutherford, Yi Shao, Alan F. Utria, and Bonnie L. Bassler. The master regulators AphA and LuxR control the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing regulon: analysis of their individual and combined effects
J. Bacteriol. published 30 November 2012, 10.1128/JB.01998-12

Read the abstract.