John Rutherfurd (1760-1840) graduated Princeton with the Class of 1776. A lawyer by profession, he served as Senator from New Jersey from 1791-1798. (See his biography in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.) His books were held by the family for many years and then much of his library was sold in a three-part sale by the City Book Auction (New York City) in 1952 (3 pts. in 2).
Question: What could be better for the study of early printed books than examining a copy of a rare 15th-century edition?
Answer: Examining two copies of a rare 15th-century edition.
Thanks to several formerly independent channels of 20th-century collecting, now united, Princeton University Library’s Special Collections owns multiple copies of more than thirty 15th-century editions. We do not consider them ‘duplicates’, as that would imply that they are absolutely identical, and that nothing is to be learned from the ‘second’ copy. Nothing could be further from the truth. Even if every letter of every word printed on every page were virtually identical (with printing shop corrections and other improvements, this is often not the case), the individual copies would still reflect entirely different histories of readership and survival, preserving unique material evidence that may be crucial to the attentive researcher, or of worthwhile interest to the casual student of book history.
Illustrated below are four examples of 15th-century editions represented by two copies. In each case, one of the copies was owned by Grenville Kane (1854–1943) of Tuxedo Park, New York, whose fine library of early books and Americana was purchased by the Trustees of Princeton University in 1946, while another copy is in the incomparable Scheide Library, long on deposit in Firestone Library but bequeathed to Princeton University in 2015 by the late William H. Scheide (1914–2014), Class of 1936. The first things that strikes most present-day viewers are the differences in their hand-decoration, and in their various bindings – copy-specific features that were added only after the individual sets of printed sheets were sold to their first owners. Moreover, three of the selected pairs also exhibit distinctive typographic variations, belying the notion that they are ‘duplicates’. Here we offer only the briefest introductions to these pairs of books, which call out for further study and comparison:
Cicero, De Officiis. [Mainz:] Johann Fust & Peter Schoeffer, 4 February 1466.
These two small folios, both printed on vellum, are from the second edition of Cicero’s treatise on the honorable fulfillment of moral duties, one of the first Classical works to be published. The Scheide copy, richly illuminated in Franco-Flemish style, is among the most beautiful of the roughly 50 copies that survive. It emerged from the collection of Ralph Willett (1719–1795), whose library at Merly was sold by Sotheby’s in 1813, and later was owned by Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773–1843), and Robert Stayner Holford (1808–1892), of Gloucestershire, respectively. In 1925 Holford’s son sold the book to the Philadelphia bookseller A.S.W. Rosenbach, from whom Gertrude Scheide Caldwell purchased it as a Christmas gift for her brother John H. Scheide in December, 1927.
Princeton’s other copy, decorated in German style, has been traced back to 1572, when ‘David Weisius’ was recorded as its donor to the town library of Augsburg. This individual was probably David Weiss (1531–1593), Augsburg patrician and town benefactor. It remained in Augsburg until 1798, after which it passed through three important private collections in Moscow.1 In 1931 the Soviet government sold it through Maggs Brothers, London, to Grenville Kane, whose collection came to Princeton University Library in 1946.
Recent research has led to the important discovery that the pair of painted coats-of-arms on the first page of Princeton’s Cicero refers to the German noble families of Truchseß zu Wetzhausen (left) and Wilhelmsdorf (right). To date, the only known union between these families was the mid-15th-century marriage of Jakob Truchseß zu Wetzhausen of Dachsbach and Susanna von Wilhelmsdorf.2 Their son, Dr Thomas Truchseß zu Wetzhausen (ca. 1460–1523), Dean of Speyer Cathedral, one-time student and later defender of Johannes Reuchlin, and correspondent and host of Erasmus of Rotterdam, was almost certainly the owner of Princeton’s 1466 Cicero.
Comparison of the Princeton and Scheide copies also reveals several typographic variants, including the presence in the Scheide copy of a four-line Latin incipit, printed in red on the first page, but omitted from the Princeton copy, in which a shorter titulus was written in by hand; numerous instances of each of these contingencies survive. Another striking difference is found on f. 14 verso, where the Scheide copy has the heading printed as usual in red type, while in the Princeton copy, the entire heading was printed upside down – an isolated accident that resulted from one of the many complications of printing with two colors.
St Augustine, De Civitate Dei. Rome: Conradus Sweynheym & Arnoldus Pannartz, in domo Petri de Maximo, 1468.
This Royal folio is either the second or the third edition of this foundational text of Western Christendom, following the Subiaco edition of 1467 and possibly the Strasbourg edition, datable not after 1468. The first page of the text in the Princeton copy was illuminated in colorful Italian ‘bianchi girari’ style. Interestingly, for the gilt initial G that introduces the words ‘Gloriosissimam civitatem dei’, a woodcut stamp, not printed in other copies, provided black outlines for the illuminator’s work, which continued free-hand into the margin. Several pages bear extensive contemporary annotations. The volume was bound in the 1790s for the British bibliophile Michael Wodhull (1740–1816), and was acquired by Princeton in 1946 with the Kane collection.
By contrast, the copy purchased by John Scheide in 1940, which emerged from the Syston Park Library in 1884 and was rebound in London by Douglas Cockerell in 1903, never received its requisite initials or decoration by hand; indeed, the book reveals virtually no evidence of use by early readers. The copy is nevertheless of considerable interest, as its introductory leaf bears a beautifully written and historically significant gift inscription (below), which records that Nicolò Sandonino (1422–1499), Bishop of Lucca beginning in 1479, presented this book to the Carmelites of San Pietro Cigoli in Lucca in 1491. It is curious that these friars, who disposed of numerous important books during the early 18th century, seem to have had no use for the bishop’s gift.
Leonardo Bruni, De bello Italico adversus Gothos. Foligno: Emiliano Orfini & Johann Neumeister, 1470.
The first book printed in the small Italian town of Foligno was this history of the 5th-century Goth invasion of the Italian peninsula, compiled in 1441 by Leonardo Bruni. It was published in 1470 by Johannes Neumeister, a peripatetic printer from Mainz who made a career of enticing investors into supporting unsustainable printing ventures. It is bound with another rare Chancery folio, the only copy held in America of Bernardus Justinianus, Oratio habita apud Sixtum IV contra Turcos. [Rome]: Johannes Philippus de Lignamine, [after 2 Dec. 1471]. The rubrication throughout is French, and the bottom margin of the first leaf bears the inscription ‘Jacques le Chandelier, 1550’. This owner is probably to be identified with the contemporary Royal Secretary in Paris by that name. The volume later wandered through a series of distinguished European private libraries and came to Princeton University with the Kane collection in 1946.3
The Scheide copy, illuminated in the Italian ‘bianchi girari’ (white vine) style, is probably the one offered by the Ulrico Hoepli firm in Milan in 1935. It subsequently entered the library of Giannalisa Feltrinelli (1903–1981), an Italian heiress and bibliophile who had homes in Rome, Milan, Geneva, and Stanbridge East, Canada. The book was auctioned at Christie’s in New York on 7 October 1997, lot 19, to H. P. Kraus. When his firm’s inventory was auctioned by Sotheby’s in New York in December 2003, the book remained available and was bought after the sale by William H. Scheide.
In addition to featuring contrasting French and Italian hand-decoration, the two copies are differentiated by variant typesetting in their colophons, which include different spellings of the surname and hometown of Neumeister’s patron, the master of the papal mint in Foligno, Emilianus de Orfinis. Whereas the colophon in Princeton’s copy reads ‘Ursinis Eulginas’, that of the Scheide copy has been corrected to ‘Orfinis Fulginas’ (below).
Ptolemy, Cosmographia. Ulm: Lienhart Holle, 16 July 1482.
The Super-Royal folio ‘Ulm Ptolemy’ of 1482 is famous for its 32 large woodcut maps, including the great double-page ‘World Map’ carved by Johannes Schnitzer of Arnsheim, 26 regional maps based on Ptolemy’s 2nd-century CE descriptions, and five new maps of Italy, France Spain, Scandinavia, and the Holy Land, based on manuscript projections by the editor of the work, Nicolaus Germanus, a Benedictine monk from the diocese of Breslau who lived and worked in Florence.
The Princeton copy, sold by the Rappaport firm in Rome toward the beginning of the last century, came with the Grenville Kane collection in 1946. The Scheide copy, richly hand-colored throughout, was inscribed in 1509 by Johannes Protzer (d. 1528), a scholar and bibliophile of Nördlingen, Germany. It emerged in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps in the 19th century and was acquired by John H. Scheide from A.S.W. Rosenbach in 1924.
Although bibliographers sometimes discuss two 1482 Ulm ‘editions’ of this book, in fact there was only one edition, albeit one with many of its maps accompanied by textual descriptions that can appear in one of two or more alternate settings. For example, in the Princeton copy (below, left), the ninth map for Asia is accompanied by text that was composed into columns of 27 lines within a somewhat cramped square-shaped woodcut frame. By contrast, in the Scheide copy (below, right), the same page was composed more spaciously into 30 lines, fitting less tightly into a taller rectangular frame. To date, there has been no conclusive analysis of all the variant pages. Only a systematic comparison of multiple copies will provide a clearer understanding of the production of the 1482 Ulm Ptolemy.
What Could be Better?
Whereas traditional rare book librarianship tended to look upon the acquisition of ‘duplicates’ as undesirable or wasteful, given that precious funds could go toward adding texts that were not already represented in the collection, it is worth considering the special pedagogical and research value of comparing two copies from the same edition side by side. Experienced scholars as well as first-time students can appreciate that the two copies present distinct multiples of the original creation, each one preserving its own archeological record of survival and human intervention. Rubrication, illumination, binding, annotation, censorship, damage, repair, and other reflections of ownership and use offer fascinating traces of their disparate trajectories through history, revealing the many ways in which old books, as Milton observed, ‘are not absolutely dead things, but doe contain a potencie of life in them’.
Readers may be interested in the Morgan Library’s virtual tour by John McQuillen, “Why Three Gutenberg Bibles?”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIteWBHSa00&fbclid=IwAR2615uiqBWL15HGX8kAnOykQfWUBshMmNUIv1CRI6fBlQ8IvZ6jzz-jbjk
1 Count Aleksei Golowkin (d. 1811) of Moscow, whose gilt coat of arms appears on the front cover of the red-dyed goatskin binding; Alexandre Vlassoff (d. 1825), Imperial chamberlain in Moscow; Prince Michael Galitzin / Golitsyn (1804–1860), also in Moscow, with whose family it remained into the 20th century.
2 Johann Gottfried Biedermann, Geschlechtsregister der Reichsfrey unmittelbaren Ritterschaft Landes zu Franken Löblichen Orts Baunach (Bayreuth: Dietzel, 1747), table 197.
3 Early owners included Paul Girardot de Préfond (during the 1760s) in Paris; Pietro Antonio Bolongaro Crevenna (1735–1792) in Amsterdam; Michael Wodhull (1740–1816) in London; and William Horatio Crawford (1815–1888) at Lakelands in Cork, Ireland. In 1897 it was offered by the Quaritch firm (Catalogue 166, no. 770).
The first edition of the works of Lucius Apuleius of Madauros (ca. 124–ca. 170 CE), a North African philosopher and rhetorician, was published in Rome by Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz in 1469. Printed in an edition of 275 copies, it includes the ‘The Golden Ass’, a bawdy proto-novel in which the protagonist, Lucius, experiments with magic and thereby inadvertently transforms himself into a donkey, a circumstance that allows him to observe human behavior, undetected, from a new vantage point. The tale of Cupid and Psyche also appears here for the first time, narrated as a story within the story.
As was customary in early printed books, Sweynheym and Pannartz left large open spaces at the beginnings of each of the ‘books’, each intended to be filled in by hand with rubricated or illuminated initial letters. One of the prevailing styles of hand-decoration in Italian books during this period featured spiraling white vine tendrils, called ‘bianchi girari’. Princeton’s rare first edition of the poetical works of Virgil, also printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz in 1469 (at left), exemplifies this colorful style.
The Apuleius of 1469 offers unusual insights into fifteenth-century book production in that it was intended to display ‘bianchi girari’ initials and borders, but the work was never finished:
Instead, the book displays graceful preparatory drawings for the decoration, executed in plummet (soft lead) for establishing the composition and brown ink for the final outlines. The initials A and B (shown here) would have been covered with gold leaf, and the interstices between the outlined tendrils would have been colored red, blue, and green, and possibly augmented with yellow. Sketchy little circles in the margins indicate where gilded ‘bezants’ would have provided additional ornamentation. One of the tendrils to the left of the initial A breaks off suddenly, just where it should have continued down the left margin of the text; this argues for the interrupted nature of the work, and seems to rule out the possibility that this is later ’embellishment’ by a nineteenth-century admirer of the fifteenth-century style.
Princeton’s copy of the Apuleius was owned in the early nineteenth century by Alexander Douglas-Hamilton (1767–1852), 10th Duke of Hamilton and 7th Duke of Brandon, in Lanarkshire, Scotland. The Hamilton Palace Library was auctioned by Sotheby’s in London on 1 May 1884, with the Apuleius listed as lot 95. It passed through the Quaritch firm in London in 1888 and entered the collection of Robert Hoe of New York City, whose books were sold by Anderson Galleries in 1911 (lot 91). The next known owner was Grenville Kane, a New York collector who obtained it in 1920. His estate sold his library to the Trustees of Princeton University in 1946.
Three discoveries by three different researchers have cast new light on a remarkable 500-year-old book that has been at Princeton University since 1873: Otto von Passau’s Die vierundzwanzig Alten, oder Der goldne Thron, completed by the Strasbourg printer Johann Schott on 28 March 1500. In this work, illustrated with 25 woodcuts, the Twenty-Four Elders of Revelation 4:4 expound upon passages of scriptural wisdom so as to guide the reader to the “golden throne” of eternal salvation.
The first discovery was made in 2007 by Scott Husby, Princeton’s conservator for Rare Books and Special Collections (since retired), who identified the folio’s original (ca. 1500) blind-tooled pigskin-covered binding as the work of bookbinders at Ulm in southern Germany. The tooled emblems found on the binding, including a distinctive Lamb of God, Winged Lion of St. Mark, and Pierced Heart, are associated both with the bindery of the Augustinian canons of the “Wengenkloster “ of St. Michael in Ulm, and with Konrad Dinckmut, a printer active in Ulm from 1476 and recorded as a bookbinder in that city from 1481; Dinckmut’s sons Hans and Michael appear to have continued binding books with his tools into the sixteenth century.
A Reformation-era inscription within the book supports this localization, as it records that the volume was the property of the Franciscan fathers of Ulm until the eve of the feast of St. Francis (4 October) 1531, when the city’s adoption of Protestantism led to their expulsion (“Gehort den vatter[n] zu Ulm als sy uszogen seind umb Francisci im xxxi jor”):
The second discovery was made by John Lancaster, Curator of Special Collections, Emeritus, Amherst College Library, in October 2016. He identified the mysterious printed paper sheet that had served the bookbinder as a pastedown inside the folio’s front cover. Noting that it came from a Latin grammatical work printed in quarto format, he quickly determined that “the text is Alexander de Villa Dei, Doctrinale – of which there are hundreds of editions. But the lack of commentary rules out many editions, so a quick look for editions without commentary, preferably quite late (since the Otto von Passau was printed in 1500), led to success! [Ulm: Johann Schäffler], 15 Feb. 1500.”
This Ulm edition of the Doctrinale is truly rare: it exists only in a single incomplete copy at the Bavarian State Library in Munich, and – as we now know – the single sheet of binding waste discovered at Princeton. As the sheet appears to have been printed on one side only and was never cut into individual leaves, it would have been discarded by Schäffler’s printing shop in Ulm ca. 1500 and handed over as waste material for use by the Ulm binder of Princeton’s Otto von Passau, a book that likewise was printed in 1500 and imported to Ulm soon thereafter.
The third discovery came in November 2016, when Eric White, Princeton’s Acting Curator of Rare Books, tackled the nagging problem of the handsome coat-of-arms painted inside the book’s back cover, beneath the initials P and R and the date 1505. A longer-than-desired period of fruitless searching ultimately was rewarded when a match was found in a sixteenth-century compendium of German armorials: the quarters on the right, divided per fess into black over white, refer to the civic arms of Ulm, while on the left the white unicorn on a black field identifies the crest as that of the family Roth von Schreckenstein, prominent patricians of Ulm.
The initials PR are believed to belong to Paulus Roth von Schreckenstein (b. 1435), the Bürgermeister of Ulm during the 1470s. Although his date of death is not known, he may well have left the book to the Franciscans of Ulm soon after 1505. Another Ulm binding with a nearly identical painted coat of arms and the initials PR is at the University of Gießen; it encloses Dinckmut’s rare Ulm edition of Der neuen Liebe Buch (not before 1486) and three Strasbourg editions from 1507 to 1509.
These discoveries increase the scholarly value of Princeton’s copy of Otto von Passau by bringing unusually rich context to the relationships between printers, bookbinders, and both mendicant and secular book owners in Germany five centuries ago; they may also shed particularly interesting light on the broader but heretofore forgotten book collecting activities of a prominent member of Ulm’s patriciate, Paulus Roth von Schreckenstein.
Princeton University Library Rare Books and Special Collections. Call no. ExI 5959.692. Purchased by the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) in 1873 along with an important collection of Reformation pamphlets owned by Dr. Adolf Trendelenburg of Berlin.
PRINTED BOOKS ACQUIRED AT THE PIRIE SALE
Associate University Librarian for Rare Books and Special Collections
“I’d never intended to practice law,” said Robert S. Pirie (1934–2015), a prominent New York lawyer and investment banker. “I wanted to become the rare book curator.” Pirie was the youngest in a cohort of twentieth-century American collectors of early English literature, among whom Robert H. Taylor (1909–1985) was the oldest. Long-time Princeton resident and major antiquarian bookseller John Brett-Smith (1917–2003), although British-born, was also a member of this cohort. There were many commonalities among the three. All had a bond and loyalty to the legendary New York antiquarian bookshop Seven Gables, which supplied each of them with tasteful, distinguished, and provenance-rich copies of major and minor monuments of England’s literary greats. (For more on the Seven Gables cohort, see Nicolas Barker, “Robert S. Pirie, 1934–2015,” The Book Collector 64.2 [Summer 2015]: 202–10.) Furthermore, their collective imagination and achievement projected their reputations beyond the Northeast and clear across to Britain. In some respects, the attainments of two members of this group are preserved in the Princeton University Library. Robert Taylor’s bequest is well known. Perhaps less well known is the work of John Brett-Smith, who, as bookseller and sometimes donor, augmented, supplied, and extended our collections of English literature. Therefore, when the Pirie collection came to auction in December 2015, we had another—and perhaps the last—opportunity to capture some of the glory of this remarkable group of twentieth-century collectors. Guiding our bidding decisions were themes already strong in the Taylor collection: annotated books, books of notable provenance, and extraordinary books signaling the literary taste of early modern England. The fifteen books purchased at the Pirie sale are listed below.
Thomas Tusser, Five Hundred Points of Husbandry (London, 1580); annotated by Gabriel Harvey (1552/3–1631).
Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War [in Greek] (Venice: Aldus, 1502), bound with Pausanias, Works (Venice: Aldus, 1516); annotated by Roger Ascham (1515–1568) and Richard Morison (c. 1514–1556) (pictured above).
Ben Jonson, Works (London, 1692), and John Suckling, Fragmenta Aurea (London, 1646); both annotated by Charles Lamb (1775–1834).
Pliny, Epistolae (Venice: Aldus, 1508); annotated by Nicholas Udall (1505–1556).
Thomas Browne, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, 4th ed. (London, 1658); annotated by Browne (1605–1682).
Matthias Eberhart, Scholastica (Wittenberg, 1572); annotated by Robert Burton (1577–1640).
Erycius Puteanus, Comus (Oxford, 1634); annotated by Leigh Hunt (1784–1859).
BOOKS OF NOTABLE PROVENANCE
Arthur Duck, Vita Henrici Chichele (Oxford, 1617); with the initials of Isaak Walton (1593–1683).
Michel Montaigne, Les Essais (Paris, 1625); with a note in the hand of Abraham Cowley (1618–1687) and bookplates of later notable owners.
Francis Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum (London, 1626); with supralibros of H[enry] G[oodere] and labels of other owners.
Elkanah Settle, Thalia Triumphans (London, 1717); binding with the arms of Henry Fiennes Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln (1684–1728).
Abbe d’Aubignac, Pratique du théâtre (Paris, 1657); with the signature of William Congreve (1670–1729) on the title page.
William Burton, Description of Leicester Shire (London, 1622); binding with the crest of Robert Glascock.
A MARKER OF LITERARY TASTES
A Sammelband, in a contemporary binding, of eight English translations from Ovid, by George Chapman (1559?–1634), Christopher Marlowe (1564–1593), Thomas Heywood (c. 1574–1641), and others, all published between c. 1625 and 1640.
MANUSCRIPTS ACQUIRED AT THE PIRIE SALE
Don C. Skemer
Curator of Manuscripts
The Manuscripts Division acquired three works at the Pirie auction: an Elizabethan prayer book c. 1580; a 1666 scribal copy of “The Second and Third Advice to a Painter,” a text that Professor of English Nigel Smith attributes to Andrew Marvell (1621–1678); and the 1660s memoir of an English woman named Mary Whitelocke. The daughter of London merchant Bigley Carleton, Whitelocke penned a fascinating 175-page memoir of her life and intimate thoughts for her eldest son. She traces her life from the time of her first marriage at the age of sixteen to Rowland Wilson (d. 1650), Member of Parliament, also from a London mercantile family. Whitelocke’s second marriage in 1650 was to the prominent Puritan lawyer, politician, and diplomat Bulstrode Whitelocke (1605–1675), a Member of Parliament and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, with whom Mary had seven children. Much of the memoir relates to Mary’s family, home, and religious beliefs. Particularly interesting is Whitelocke’s poignant account of a miscarriage that occurred during her first marriage. There is some discussion of public affairs and events, particularly in her defense of Bulstrode Whitelocke’s public life. The manuscript has been in private collections since 1860, when it was cited and quoted in a biography of Bulstrode Whitelocke. All three manuscripts have been added to the Robert H. Taylor Collection of English and American Literature (RTC 01).
❧ The present physical make-up of this 1476 Milan edition of Horace resulted from the fabricating instructions of engineer and book collector John Eliot Hodgkin (1829-1912) of Richmond, Surrey.
To understand this book physically we must reverse-engineer it. Doing so we discover the chronological sequence of its production:
1. About 1860, John Eliot Hodgkin came into possession of an imperfect copy of the 1476 Horace and about that time, he states, he obtained from John Harris a facsimile of leaf 118. [For more on John Harris, see “John Harris the Pen-and-Ink Facsimilist”
by Toshiyuki Takamiya, Keio University (Link)]
2. The assemblage went into the hands of a binder who added margins to damaged leaves thus bringing all leaves to a uniform size of 25.6 cm tall x 15.7 cm wide. The leaves were washed and bleached leaving ghosts of annotations throughout. On the last leaf, faintly appears the name ‘Zanner Amerigoti.’
3. The text block was sewn onto five cords laced into boards covered in brown calf tooled in gilt with the recessed monogram “I E H”. All edges gilt.
4. On the back pastedown, Hodgkin mounted his ‘Adnotatio,’ in effect a memorial tablet detailing the recording of this edition by authoritative bibliographers and cognoscenti collectors.
5. In 1902, JEH published his descriptive notes about this copy in his Rariora.
The book was sold at Sotheby (London) at Hodgkin’s sale in May 1914. In November 1914, Robert Patterson, class of 1876, presented it to the Library. Call number: PTT 2865.1476
Cypher composed of the interlaced and mirrored initials C R N [Collegium regium Navarricum], as identified in L. Bouland, “Monogramme du collège de Navarre” in Archives de la Société des collectionneurs d’ex-libris (Paris: 1895) [2d Année, No. 1, Janvier], pp 66-69.
[Text of article]
On covers and spine of Petri Gualterii Chabotii pictonis sanlupensis praelectionum in Q. Horatii Flacci poemata tomus primus[-tertius] : … cum catalogo auctorum, quorum in his commentariis usus fuit, & syllabo verborum et rerum memorabilium. (Basilae : Per Leonhardum Ostenium, MCXCI-MCXCIV [1591-1594]) [Call number: PTT 2865.1591q] [Also has the armorial bookplate of W[illia]m Constable, F.R.S. and F.A.S. (Franks 6646)]
L’Eneide di Virgilio del commendatore Annibal Caro Venetia, B. Giunti & fratelli, 1581. Call number: VRG 2945.311 Ita 581 (bound with Della Eneide di Vergilio il quarto libro tradotto in ottava rima per M. Gio. Battista Filippi. Genova, appresso Antonio Bellone, 1562.)
Also with the “CC” cypher of Charles d’Orléans-Valois. However without his arms present it is difficult to determine for certain if this was his.
Virgilius Paris, apud S. Colinaeum, 1542. Call number: VRG 2945.1542s
According to Mercedes I. Salomón Salazar of the Biblioteca José María Lafragua (a contributor to the Catálogo Colectivo de Marcas de Fuego), this “marca de fuego” originates from the Colegio Apostólico de San Francisco (Pachuca, Mexico).
The brand can be found on Scotus moralis pro confessariis …in quo ea, quae subtilis doctor in quatuor Sententiarum, & quolibeta sparsim docuit, interrogatorij forma inspiciuntur by Bonaventura Theuli (1596-1670), published in Mexico by I.B. de Hogal, 1727. Call Number: (Ex) 6049.314.946.
For Catálogo Colectivo de Marcas de Fuego , see
[Almanach und Progosticon] [n.p., 1731?]
Text includes table of chronology, almanack, bloodletting table, prognosticon, and “Natur-und-Kunst Curiositäten Calendar.” Call number: (Ex)AY851.N37
[Transcription courtesy of Mark Farrell, senior cataloguer]
Books from this library were sold in London on 21st July 1993. See: Sotheby’s (Firm) The Library of the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Granard:extracted from Castle Forbes, County Longford … (London, 1993).
Left: Bookplate of Castle Forbes Library • Right: Anonymous armorial bookplate of
George Forbes, 6th Earl of Grannard (1760-1837) [Arms. Forbes impaling Rawdon. In 1779, he married Selina Frances, daughter of John 1st Earl of Moira] Franks 10892.
Crest of George Forbes, 6th Earl of Grannard (1760-1837). For further details see
British Armorial Bindings: http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/FOR001 • Other marks of ownership for this library are illustrated in the sale catalogue. ❧ ❧ Sources of these examples: Gay, Sophie, 1776-1852. Laure d’Estell par Mme. ***. Paris: Ch. Pougens, an X (1802). Call number (EX) PQ2260.G25 L38 • Minutes of evidence taken before the Committee for privileges, on the Earl of Berkeley’s pedigree, in the year 1799. (London) 1811. Call number (Ex) Item 6375489q.
“A catalogue of the Heldenrüstkammer of Archduke Ferdinand II in Schloss Ambras, the first collection of armour formed for historical reasons in the first purpose-built museum North of the Alps.” The work illustrates 125 suits of armor, one per plate. Its full title runs to 133 words. What follows is a rendering of just the first portion of the full title: “Most true images of the most august emperors, the most serene kings and archdukes, of the most illustrious princes, as well as earls, barons, nobles, and other eminent men, who were either the commanding leaders in war or within their realms performed admirably…[together with] succinct descriptions [of their achievements].” (Sometimes this work is referred to as the “Armamentarium Heroicum,” Latinizing the German for “Heroes Armory.”)
❧ This tour-de-force of Baroque illustration was complied by Jakob Schrenk von Notzing with plates believed to be by the engraver Dominicus Custos. The book was published in Innsbruck in 1601. This date in the Princeton copy has been revised by means of a handstamp to read “M.DC.XIX.” The Library’s copy is bound in contemporary calf and is stamped with the name and arms of its first owner: Hector Le Breton, seigneur de la Doineterie, who held public offices during the reigns of Henri IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV. In 1615 he succeeded his cousin as roi d’armes de France.
❧ Call number; (Ex) D106 .S3f. Purchased in 1983 from Robin Halwas (antiquarian bookseller, London; his catalogue 3, number 79).
❧ Cf. Elisabeth Scheicher, “Historiography and Display: The Heldenrustkammer of Archduke Ferdinand II in Schloss Ambras.” Journal of the History of Collections 2 (1990): 69-79.
❧ The figures explained: Armorial binding covering
Ogier Ghislin de Busbecq, Legationis Turcicae epistolae quatuor.
Frankfurt, A. Wechels Erben, C. de Marne et J. Aubry 1595. Call number (Ex) 1789.229.13.
J. Basil Oldham in Shrewsbury School Library Bindings (Oxford, 1943) notes the following regarding one such book bound for Ramiro de Guzmán, Duque de Medina de las Torres (ca. 1600-1668): On both covers there is a “narrow border formed by a simple conventional foliage roll, with a foliage ornament in each angle; in centre, an heraldic stamp 96×75 mm; a shield, surrounded with the following letters in circles CGDDMMAHPPMIGPCLA, and surmounted by a coronet under which is a scroll bearing the letters FEI. On the upper cover: arms: two coats impaled: Dexter (arms of Felipe Ramirez de Guzman, Duke of Medina de las Torres, Marquis of Torrel): Two caldrons checky with snakes issuing therefrom, flanked in saltire by ten ermine-tails (5 and 5), within a bordure gobony of Castile and Leon; Sinister (arms of Anna Caraffa, Duchess of Sabbioneta, Mondragone and Trajetto, Princess of Stigliano): Quarterly of six (two in chief and four in base): 1. Per fesse (a) three bars (Caraffa) and (b) a band counter-embattled between six stars (Aldobrandini); 2. a cross patty between four eagles crowned, and over all an escutcheon quarterly of three bars and a lion rampant (Gonzaga); 3. four pallets (Aragon); 4. per fesse a castle (Castile) and a lion (Leon); 5. four pallets flanked in saltire by two eagles crowned (Sicily); 6. a column ensigned by a crown (Colonna). On the lower cover: arms (unidentified): Upon a terrace in base, a plant growing between reeds or tufts of grass; in chief an arched band inscribed REVOLUTA FOECUNDANT, with, beneath it, and ranged in the same manner, three rows of stars.”
Ramiro de Guzmán’s arms impale those of his second wife, “Anna Caraffa, daughter of Antonio Caraffa, Duke of Mondragone, and Elena Aldobrandini. He had previously married Marie de Guzman, daughter of Gaspar de Guzman, Count of Olivares, Philip IV’s minister, to whose titles, through his marriage, he succeeded on Olivares’ death in 1645, for which reason he used the acrologic inscription round the shields which Olivares had used as an adjunct to his armorial insignia. The letters (C and G being transposed towards the end) stand for: ‘Comitatui grandatum ducatum ducatum marchionatum marchionatum arcis hispalensis perpetuam praefecturam magnam Indiarum chancellariatum primam Guzmanorum lineam addidit.’ The letters FEI stand for: ‘Fortuna etiam invidente.’
As the owner of the book would not be likely to use the boastful inscription of his father-in-law until he had, by the latter’s death, succeeded to his titles, the book was probably not bound till after 1645, and in Spain, not Naples, because by that time the owner had ceased to be Viceroy of Naples. A larger variant of these heraldic stamps is found on some books.” (p. 120-121; Shrewsbury School Library example illustrated on plate XXVI)
❧ Figure 2 • Two inscriptions on titlepage:
Alongside right margin, “[Guil.] Godophin” [See a comparable example at the University of Pennsylvania.] This is the signature of English diplomat, Sir William Godophin (1634?-1696) •
At bottom:”Ex libris bibliothecae Domus S[anct]ae. M[ari]ae M[ontium] Piorum Operariorum” From the library of the Congreation of the Pii Operarii, a group of religious founded at Naples in 1602.For comparable provenances, see exemplars at Cambridge University Libraryand at
Universitats de Catalunya.]
❧ Figure 3 • A remarkable survival • 17th / 18th century slip case custom made for this book. Why would such a case have been made? Perhaps to protect the book during travel — Busbecq’s Turkish Letters provided important detailed information about the Ottoman state and were highly prized (and still are.)
Figure 2 (above) ❧ Figure 3 (below)
|“Francis Massy, lord of the manors of Rixton and Glazebrook, born 1703, and who died unmarried 28 September 1748, when the family became extinct. By his will, dated 27 February, he left his estate and effects to his kinsman George Meynell of Yorkshire.” – Remains Historical & Literary Connected with the Palatine Counties of
Lancaster and Chester. Published By The Chetham Society. Vol. CX. (1882), p. 224.
❧ Bookplate signed “I. Skinner, Bath, sculpt.” Jacob Skinner was active between 1732 and 1753.
❧ The Massy bookplate is on the front pastedown of Gabriel Harvey’s copy of Livy (Basle, 1555). Call number (Ex) PA6452 .A2 1555q. A complete digital scan of this remarkable annotated book is available here, however, the scanning project did not include full coverage of this piece of ownership evidence.
His library sold at Sotheby’s, June 11, 1902. ❧ Crest and spine at right:
Cotton, Charles, 1630-1687.
Scarronnides: or, Virgile travestie. A mock-poem. In imitation of the fourth book of Virgils Aeneis in English, burlesque … London, Printed by E. Cotes for Henry Brome … 1665. (VRG) 2945.312 Eng664.
In addition to the above, another Virgil from the Fountaine library was purchased by Junius Spencer Morgan. This has Fountaine’s crest stamped on the front cover. JSM obtained this Virgil from Quartich, who put in his date of acquisition ’16.VI.1902.’
The nyne fyrst bookes of the Eneidos of Virgil conuerted into Englishe vearse by Thomas Phaer… London : Printed by R. Hall, for N. Englande, 1562. (VRG) 2945.311 Eng562.
For further details, see British Armorial Bindings, http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/FOU002
|Her arms stamped on the covers of: François Parfaict (1698-1753) Histoire du théâtre françois depuis son origine jusqu’à présent. Avec la vie des plus célébres poëtes dramatiques, des extraits exacts, & un catalogue raisonné de leurs piéces, accompagnés de notes historiques & critiques. Paris, A. Morin [etc.] 1734-49. Call number: (THX) PQ500 .P3 (vol. 1-2)
❧ For further details on this collector see Ernest Quentin-Bauchart, Les femmes bibliophiles de France (XVIe, XVIIe, & XVIIIe siècles)(Paris, 1886), T. 1, p. 411-428.
Detail of stamp on covers of an 18th century Dutch prize book: an award from the Latin school of the city of Amersfoort.
❧ Pliny, the Younger. Epistolarum. Libros decem, cum notis selectis; Jo. Mariae Catanaei, Jac. Schegkii [et al], Recensuerunt suisque animadversionibus illustrarunt Gottlieb Cortius et Paullus Daniel Longolius... Amstelaedami, apud Janssonio-Waesbergios, 1734. Call number: RCPXR 2905.311.234. For further particulars see J. Spoelder, Prijsboeken op de latijnse school, (Amsterdam, 2000), especially page p. 479.
|❧ Initial B surmounted by ducal coronet: stamp of Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch (1746 – 1812) together with arms of Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albermarle (1650 – 1688). On the front and back covers of Charles Sorel (1582?-1674) The comical history of Francion, wherein the variety of vices that abuse the ages are satyrically limn’d in their native colours: interwoven with many pleasant events, and moral lessons, as well fitted for the entertainment of the gravest head as the lightest heart. By Monsieur de Moulines, sieur de Parc, a Lorain gentleman [pseud.] … Done into English by a person of honor. London, Printed for Francis Leach, 1655. Call number: EXOV 3292.5.394.5 ❧
For further details, see British Armorial Bindings, for Monck, http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/MON001 and for Scott, see http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/SCO005
|Bound in vellum stained green
A Collection of the State Letters of the Rt. Hon. Roger Boyle, the first earl of Orrery (Dublin, Printed by and for G. Faulkner, 1743). Call number (Ex) 1473.16.691.
❧ With his badge: “O” surmounted by an earl’s coronet stamped on spine:
For further details, see British Armorial Bindings, http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/BOY003
❧ ❧ ❧ ❧ ❧ ❧ ❧
Ange Goudar (1720-1791).
Bookplates ❧ In A Collection of the State Letters
His bookplate dating to 1751 or later;
John succeeded his father as fifth earl of Orrery in 1731 and his kinsman as fifth earl of Cork in 1751.
❧ ❧ In The Workes of Benjamin Jonson. (London, 1616) Call number (EX) 3806.1616q
His bookplate with arms of Boyle impaling Hamilton to commemorate his marriage in 1738 to Margaret, the only daughter of John Hamilton, Esq., of Caledon, co. Tyrone. and his initials “I.O.” to left of coronet. ❧ For further details about his bookplates see: Journal of the Ex Libris Society vol. 7 p.57 for “Notes on some Boyle bookplates” at
❧ His sale: Catalogue of the valuable and extensive library and collection of autograph letters of the Rt. Hon. The Earl of Cork and Orrery removed from Marston, Frome which will be sold by auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods at their great rooms 8 King Street, St. James’s Square on Tuesday, November 21, 1905 and two following days at one o’clock precisely. London: Printed by William Clowes and Sons. . 736 lots, mostly itemized.
Quarterly in eight ❧
Musæum regalis societatis: or, A catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Gresham Colledge. Made by Nehemiah Grew … Whereunto is subjoyned the comparative anatomy of stomachs and guts. By the same author.
London, Printed for Tho. Malthus … 1685.
Call number: (EX) 8001.793.41.1685q
A fillip: bookplate on the verso of the title page
of Musæum regalis societatis
John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland (1661–1733)
Martial. Venice: Aldus, 1501. Call number: Kane Special 1501 Martial
❧ For other examples see http://goo.gl/NClZs (Quarterly in eight) and http://goo.gl/sLASN (Quarterly).
See also, British Armorial Bindings, http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/LEV002
De rebvs gestis francorvm libri X. Anoldi Ferroni… De rebvs gestis Gallorum libri IX ad historiam Pauli Aemylii additi, Chronicon I. Tilii de regibvs francoribii, a Pharamundo usque ad Henricum II. Paris: apud Vascosanum, 1555. Call number: (Ex) 1508.324.
|Also on the front pastedown:
18th century armorial bookplate: “Du Comte Antoine Facipecora Pavesi Sus-Intendant génèral des Eaux dans la Ville, et Duché de Mantoue.” See:
Jacopo Gelli, 3500 ex libris italiani (Milan, 1908), p. 156.
|Arms of John Montagu, the 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690-1749) on covers and his badge on spine of:
Francis Howgil. The Dawnings of the Gospel-Day, and its Light and Glory Discovered [London: s.n.,] Printed in the year 1676. Call number: (Ex) 5638.479q.
See also British Armorial Bindings, http://armorial.library.utoronto.ca/stamp-owners/MON007
|According to the Catálogo Colectivo de Marcas de Fuego, these are “marcas de fuego” of the Convento de San Cosme y San Damián de Puebla (Mexico; Mercidarian Order)
See http://goo.gl/F8QKZ and
Call number (Ex) 5959.612q
Acknowledgement to Madison C. Bush, Class of 2014, for making this identification.
|Arms surrounded with inscription:
HANS GUNTTER • DER • VIER • GRAFFEN •
DES • REICHS • GRAFFE • ZU SCHWARCZBURG • HERRE • ZU • ARNSTADT • SUNDERSHAUS • UND LEUCH
❧ Edges gauffered and gilt. Clasps.
❧ Call number (Ex)BX8069.K57 1584q ❧ Timotheus Kirchner, Gründliche warhafftige Historia von der Augspurgischen Confession (Leipzig: Defner, 1584.)
|Arm on covers of Gesta Dei per Francos, siue Orientalivm expeditionvm, et regni Francorvm hierosolimitani historia a variis, sed illius æui scriptoribus, litteris commendata: nunc primùm aut editis, aut ad libros veteres emendatis. Auctores præfatio ad lectorem exhibet. Orientalis historiae tomus primus [et secundus] Hanoviæ, typis Wechelianis, apud heredes I. Aubrii, 1611. Call number: (Ex) 14084.388q
cf. Armorial belge du bibliophile (1930), v.3, p. 680-681.
Arms also appear on copy of J. A. de Thou, Historiarum sui temporis (Geneva, 1620-26)